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Cryptogenic rabies, bats, and the question of aerosol transmission.
Ann Emerg Med. 2002 May; 39(5):528-36.AE

Abstract

Human rabies is rare in the United States; however, an estimated 40,000 patients receive rabies postexposure prophylaxis each year. Misconceptions about the transmission of rabies are plentiful, particularly regarding bats. Most cases of human rabies caused by bat variants have no definitive history of animal bite. Three hypotheses are proposed and reviewed for the transmission of rabies from bats to human beings. They include nonbite transmission (including aerosol transmission), the alternate host hypothesis (an intermediate animal host that acquires rabies from a bat and then transmits rabies to human beings), and minimized or unrecognized bat bites. Nonbite transmission of rabies is very rare, and aerosol transmission has never been well documented in the natural environment. The known pathogenesis of rabies and available data suggest that all or nearly all cases of human rabies attributable to bats were transmitted by bat bites that were minimized or unrecognized by the patients.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Virus Diseases, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD 20910-7500, USA. robert.gibbons@na.amedd.army.mil

Pub Type(s)

Case Reports
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11973559

Citation

Gibbons, Robert V.. "Cryptogenic Rabies, Bats, and the Question of Aerosol Transmission." Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 39, no. 5, 2002, pp. 528-36.
Gibbons RV. Cryptogenic rabies, bats, and the question of aerosol transmission. Ann Emerg Med. 2002;39(5):528-36.
Gibbons, R. V. (2002). Cryptogenic rabies, bats, and the question of aerosol transmission. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 39(5), 528-36.
Gibbons RV. Cryptogenic Rabies, Bats, and the Question of Aerosol Transmission. Ann Emerg Med. 2002;39(5):528-36. PubMed PMID: 11973559.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cryptogenic rabies, bats, and the question of aerosol transmission. A1 - Gibbons,Robert V, PY - 2002/4/26/pubmed PY - 2002/6/1/medline PY - 2002/4/26/entrez SP - 528 EP - 36 JF - Annals of emergency medicine JO - Ann Emerg Med VL - 39 IS - 5 N2 - Human rabies is rare in the United States; however, an estimated 40,000 patients receive rabies postexposure prophylaxis each year. Misconceptions about the transmission of rabies are plentiful, particularly regarding bats. Most cases of human rabies caused by bat variants have no definitive history of animal bite. Three hypotheses are proposed and reviewed for the transmission of rabies from bats to human beings. They include nonbite transmission (including aerosol transmission), the alternate host hypothesis (an intermediate animal host that acquires rabies from a bat and then transmits rabies to human beings), and minimized or unrecognized bat bites. Nonbite transmission of rabies is very rare, and aerosol transmission has never been well documented in the natural environment. The known pathogenesis of rabies and available data suggest that all or nearly all cases of human rabies attributable to bats were transmitted by bat bites that were minimized or unrecognized by the patients. SN - 0196-0644 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11973559/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0196064402965297 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -