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Hot flashes and related outcomes in breast cancer survivors and matched comparison women.
Oncol Nurs Forum 2002; 29(3):E16-25ON

Abstract

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES

To compare the hot flash symptom experience and related outcomes between breast cancer survivors and healthy women.

DESIGN

Descriptive, cross-sectional, comparative study.

SETTING

Southeastern university medical center.

SAMPLE

69 of 207 breast cancer survivors contacted via a tumor registry and 63 age-matched healthy female volunteers. Survivors were a mean of 57 years and a mean of 39 months postdiagnosis.

METHODS

Mailed survey included a demographic, disease, and treatment information form; a gynecologic history form; a two-day, prospective, hot flash diary; a detailed hot flash questionnaire; mood and affect scales; and the Hot Flash-Related Daily Interference Scale.

MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES

Hot flashes, mood, affect, interference with daily activities, and overall quality of life.

FINDINGS

Breast cancer survivors had hot flashes that were significantly more frequent, severe, distressing, and of greater duration. Breast cancer survivors were less likely to be using hormone replacement and more likely to have tried nonhormonal prescription interventions in the past, but reported significantly less effectiveness from hot flash treatments. Breast cancer survivors with severe hot flashes reported significantly greater mood disturbance; higher negative affect; more interference with daily activities, including sleep, concentration, and sexuality; and poorer overall quality of life in comparison to breast cancer survivors with no hot flashes to mild hot flashes. Hot flash quality and triggers were not significantly different between groups. No clear temporal pattern of hot flashes emerged.

CONCLUSIONS

Hot flashes are a significant problem for breast cancer survivors, even for those who are naturally postmenopausal (i.e., did not undergo menopause as a result of surgery or the effects of chemotherapy). Hot flashes remained fairly stable over time and did not diminish in frequency, severity, or associated distress.

IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING

The findings guide the assessment of the uniqueness of the problem of hot flashes experienced by breast cancer survivors and help define outcomes to address in clinical practice or include in future hot flash intervention research.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Nursing, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA. janet.s.carpenter@vanderbilt.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11979290

Citation

Carpenter, Janet S., et al. "Hot Flashes and Related Outcomes in Breast Cancer Survivors and Matched Comparison Women." Oncology Nursing Forum, vol. 29, no. 3, 2002, pp. E16-25.
Carpenter JS, Johnson D, Wagner L, et al. Hot flashes and related outcomes in breast cancer survivors and matched comparison women. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2002;29(3):E16-25.
Carpenter, J. S., Johnson, D., Wagner, L., & Andrykowski, M. (2002). Hot flashes and related outcomes in breast cancer survivors and matched comparison women. Oncology Nursing Forum, 29(3), pp. E16-25.
Carpenter JS, et al. Hot Flashes and Related Outcomes in Breast Cancer Survivors and Matched Comparison Women. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2002;29(3):E16-25. PubMed PMID: 11979290.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Hot flashes and related outcomes in breast cancer survivors and matched comparison women. AU - Carpenter,Janet S, AU - Johnson,David, AU - Wagner,Lois, AU - Andrykowski,Michael, PY - 2002/4/30/pubmed PY - 2002/5/15/medline PY - 2002/4/30/entrez SP - E16 EP - 25 JF - Oncology nursing forum JO - Oncol Nurs Forum VL - 29 IS - 3 N2 - PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To compare the hot flash symptom experience and related outcomes between breast cancer survivors and healthy women. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional, comparative study. SETTING: Southeastern university medical center. SAMPLE: 69 of 207 breast cancer survivors contacted via a tumor registry and 63 age-matched healthy female volunteers. Survivors were a mean of 57 years and a mean of 39 months postdiagnosis. METHODS: Mailed survey included a demographic, disease, and treatment information form; a gynecologic history form; a two-day, prospective, hot flash diary; a detailed hot flash questionnaire; mood and affect scales; and the Hot Flash-Related Daily Interference Scale. MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES: Hot flashes, mood, affect, interference with daily activities, and overall quality of life. FINDINGS: Breast cancer survivors had hot flashes that were significantly more frequent, severe, distressing, and of greater duration. Breast cancer survivors were less likely to be using hormone replacement and more likely to have tried nonhormonal prescription interventions in the past, but reported significantly less effectiveness from hot flash treatments. Breast cancer survivors with severe hot flashes reported significantly greater mood disturbance; higher negative affect; more interference with daily activities, including sleep, concentration, and sexuality; and poorer overall quality of life in comparison to breast cancer survivors with no hot flashes to mild hot flashes. Hot flash quality and triggers were not significantly different between groups. No clear temporal pattern of hot flashes emerged. CONCLUSIONS: Hot flashes are a significant problem for breast cancer survivors, even for those who are naturally postmenopausal (i.e., did not undergo menopause as a result of surgery or the effects of chemotherapy). Hot flashes remained fairly stable over time and did not diminish in frequency, severity, or associated distress. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: The findings guide the assessment of the uniqueness of the problem of hot flashes experienced by breast cancer survivors and help define outcomes to address in clinical practice or include in future hot flash intervention research. SN - 1538-0688 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11979290/Hot_flashes_and_related_outcomes_in_breast_cancer_survivors_and_matched_comparison_women_ L2 - http://store.ons.org/article/find?doi=10.1188/02.ONF.E16-E25 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -