No changes in serum fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid concentrations with the intake of plant sterol/stanol esters in the context of a controlled diet.Metabolism. 2002 May; 51(5):652-6.M
Spreads enriched with plant sterol and stanol esters have been shown to possess similar cholesterol-lowering properties; however, their comparative capacity to alter circulating levels of other fat-soluble compounds has not been fully assessed. To compare actions of sterol and stanol ester consumption on serum fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid concentrations, 15 hypercholesterolemic subjects were fed each of 3 fixed foods treatment diets over 21 days using a randomized crossover controlled design. Diets contained either (1) margarine (M), (2) margarine with sterol esters (MSE; 1.92 g/d), or (3) margarine with stanol esters (MSA; 1.76 g/d). No significant differences were found in initial or final serum fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid concentrations among the 3 phases. Serum retinol and alpha- and gamma-tocopherol concentrations at baseline and endpoint and percentage changes relative to baseline for MSE and MSA were not significantly different from those of the M diet. After adjusting for total cholesterol reduction, no changes for alpha- and gamma-tocopherol were found. Serum vitamins D and K, lycopene, and lutein concentrations and percentage changes did not differ across diets. Serum concentrations at baseline and endpoint and percentage changes for alpha- and beta-cryptoxanthin and alpha- and gamma-carotene were not different among the diets, nor did serum alpha- and gamma-carotene concentrations to total cholesterol ratios differ. Serum lutein, beta-cryptoxanthin, and alpha-carotene concentrations increased over time. In conclusion, our results show no effect of consumption of esterified plant sterols or stanols on serum fat-soluble vitamin or carotenoid concentrations compared with a control diet.