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Pharmacokinetics of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and 1alpha(OH)D(3) in normal and uraemic men.
Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2002 May; 17(5):829-42.ND

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The therapeutic equivalence of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and 1alpha(OH)D(3) on the suppression of PTH synthesis and secretion has not clearly been established. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and 1alpha(OH)D(3) after oral and i.v. administration in healthy volunteers and uraemic patients.

METHODS

Six healthy volunteers and 12 uraemic patients were included in the study. With an interval of 2 weeks, 4 microg of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) i.v., 4 microg of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) orally, 4 microg of 1alpha(OH)D(3) i.v. and 4 microg of 1alpha(OH)D(3) orally were administered. Blood samples for analysis of plasma-Ca(2+), plasma-1,25(OH)(2)D(3), and plasma-PTH were drawn at time 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. The healthy volunteers were studied in all four protocols and the uraemic patients in either the 1alpha(OH)D(3) (n=6) or the 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) (n=6) protocol.

RESULTS

After oral administration of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) the bioavailability of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was 70.6+/-5.8/72.2+/-4.8% in healthy volunteers/uraemic patients (n.s.). After i.v. administration the volume of distribution of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was similar, 0.49+/-0.14 vs 0.27+/-0.06 l/kg in healthy volunteers vs uraemic patients (n.s.), while the metabolic clearance rate of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was 57% lower in the uraemic patients, 23.5+/-4.34 vs 10.1+/-1.35 ml/min in healthy volunteers vs uraemic patients, respectively (P<0.03). The bioavailability of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) after i.v. administration of 1alpha(OH)D(3) was 42.4+/-11.0/42.0+/-2.0% in healthy volunteers/uraemic patients (n.s.); and after oral administration of 1alpha(OH)D(3) 42.0+/-2.0/29.8+/-3.1% in healthy volunteers/uraemic patients (n.s.). A small, but significant increase in plasma-Ca(2+) was seen after administration of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) to the uraemic patients, while no increase was seen after administration of 1alpha(OH)D(3). PTH levels were significantly suppressed in the healthy volunteers 24 h after administration of 4 microg of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) i.v., 4 microg of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) orally, and 4 microg of 1alpha(OH)D(3) orally by 35+/-7, 30+/-8, and 35+/-4%, respectively (all P<0.03). In the uraemic patients, PTH levels were significantly suppressed after administration of 4 microg of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) i.v., 4 microg of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) orally, and 4 microg of 1alpha(OH)D(3) i.v. by 30+/-10, 45+/-7, and 40+/-7%, respectively (all P<0.04). The effect was transitory in the healthy volunteers and lasted for at least 72 h in the uraemic patients.

CONCLUSION

The present study found a 57% lower metabolic clearance rate of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in uraemic patients, as compared with that of healthy volunteers (P<0.03). The bioavailability of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) following administration of 1alpha(OH)D(3) i.v. and orally in both healthy volunteers and uraemic patients was markedly lower than after administration of oral 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) (P<0.03). In spite of lower plasma-1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels after administration of 1alpha(OH)D(3), no significant difference was observed on the suppressive effect of 4 microg i.v. of either 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) or 1alpha(OH)D(3) on the plasma-PTH levels in the uraemic patients. This might suggest the existence of an effect of 1alpha(OH)D(3) on the parathyroid glands which is independent of the plasma-1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels, that are achieved after oral or i.v. administration of 1alpha(OH)D(3).

Authors+Show Affiliations

Nephrological Department P, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Lisbet.Brandi@dadlnet.dkNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11981071

Citation

Brandi, Lisbet, et al. "Pharmacokinetics of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and 1alpha(OH)D(3) in Normal and Uraemic Men." Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation : Official Publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association, vol. 17, no. 5, 2002, pp. 829-42.
Brandi L, Egfjord M, Olgaard K. Pharmacokinetics of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and 1alpha(OH)D(3) in normal and uraemic men. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2002;17(5):829-42.
Brandi, L., Egfjord, M., & Olgaard, K. (2002). Pharmacokinetics of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and 1alpha(OH)D(3) in normal and uraemic men. Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation : Official Publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association, 17(5), 829-42.
Brandi L, Egfjord M, Olgaard K. Pharmacokinetics of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and 1alpha(OH)D(3) in Normal and Uraemic Men. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2002;17(5):829-42. PubMed PMID: 11981071.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Pharmacokinetics of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and 1alpha(OH)D(3) in normal and uraemic men. AU - Brandi,Lisbet, AU - Egfjord,Martin, AU - Olgaard,Klaus, PY - 2002/5/1/pubmed PY - 2002/10/9/medline PY - 2002/5/1/entrez SP - 829 EP - 42 JF - Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association JO - Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. VL - 17 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: The therapeutic equivalence of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and 1alpha(OH)D(3) on the suppression of PTH synthesis and secretion has not clearly been established. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and 1alpha(OH)D(3) after oral and i.v. administration in healthy volunteers and uraemic patients. METHODS: Six healthy volunteers and 12 uraemic patients were included in the study. With an interval of 2 weeks, 4 microg of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) i.v., 4 microg of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) orally, 4 microg of 1alpha(OH)D(3) i.v. and 4 microg of 1alpha(OH)D(3) orally were administered. Blood samples for analysis of plasma-Ca(2+), plasma-1,25(OH)(2)D(3), and plasma-PTH were drawn at time 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. The healthy volunteers were studied in all four protocols and the uraemic patients in either the 1alpha(OH)D(3) (n=6) or the 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) (n=6) protocol. RESULTS: After oral administration of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) the bioavailability of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was 70.6+/-5.8/72.2+/-4.8% in healthy volunteers/uraemic patients (n.s.). After i.v. administration the volume of distribution of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was similar, 0.49+/-0.14 vs 0.27+/-0.06 l/kg in healthy volunteers vs uraemic patients (n.s.), while the metabolic clearance rate of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was 57% lower in the uraemic patients, 23.5+/-4.34 vs 10.1+/-1.35 ml/min in healthy volunteers vs uraemic patients, respectively (P<0.03). The bioavailability of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) after i.v. administration of 1alpha(OH)D(3) was 42.4+/-11.0/42.0+/-2.0% in healthy volunteers/uraemic patients (n.s.); and after oral administration of 1alpha(OH)D(3) 42.0+/-2.0/29.8+/-3.1% in healthy volunteers/uraemic patients (n.s.). A small, but significant increase in plasma-Ca(2+) was seen after administration of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) to the uraemic patients, while no increase was seen after administration of 1alpha(OH)D(3). PTH levels were significantly suppressed in the healthy volunteers 24 h after administration of 4 microg of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) i.v., 4 microg of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) orally, and 4 microg of 1alpha(OH)D(3) orally by 35+/-7, 30+/-8, and 35+/-4%, respectively (all P<0.03). In the uraemic patients, PTH levels were significantly suppressed after administration of 4 microg of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) i.v., 4 microg of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) orally, and 4 microg of 1alpha(OH)D(3) i.v. by 30+/-10, 45+/-7, and 40+/-7%, respectively (all P<0.04). The effect was transitory in the healthy volunteers and lasted for at least 72 h in the uraemic patients. CONCLUSION: The present study found a 57% lower metabolic clearance rate of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in uraemic patients, as compared with that of healthy volunteers (P<0.03). The bioavailability of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) following administration of 1alpha(OH)D(3) i.v. and orally in both healthy volunteers and uraemic patients was markedly lower than after administration of oral 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) (P<0.03). In spite of lower plasma-1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels after administration of 1alpha(OH)D(3), no significant difference was observed on the suppressive effect of 4 microg i.v. of either 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) or 1alpha(OH)D(3) on the plasma-PTH levels in the uraemic patients. This might suggest the existence of an effect of 1alpha(OH)D(3) on the parathyroid glands which is independent of the plasma-1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels, that are achieved after oral or i.v. administration of 1alpha(OH)D(3). SN - 0931-0509 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11981071/Pharmacokinetics_of_125_OH__2_D_3__and_1alpha_OH_D_3__in_normal_and_uraemic_men_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ndt/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ndt/17.5.829 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -