Prevalence of coronary risk factors among Indian physicians.J Assoc Physicians India. 2001 Dec; 49:1148-52.JA
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
Prevalence of coronary risk factors has not been well studied in Indian physicians, therefore, to determine prevalence of selected lifestyle and biochemical coronary risk factors we performed this study.
Physicians attending a national conference were invited to participate. Of the 1000 questionnaires circulated 256 physicians (221 males, 35 females) responded and were examined for presence of smoking, obesity, truncal obesity, hypertension and ECG abnormalities. Two hundred and thirty four physicians (91.4%, 203 males, 31 females) underwent a fasting blood examination for determination of glucose and lipid profile. Subjects were divided into three age groups: Group I aged < 40 years; Group II 40-49 years; and Group III > or = 50 years.
Mean age of the study population was 41.7 +/- 9.3 years (range 26-70). There was no significant difference in the distribution of height, weight, body-mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference and waist-hip ratio (WHR) in different age-groups. Systolic blood pressure (BP) and fasting glucose and triglyceride levels increased with age in both males and females, while diastolic BP, total - LDL and HDL cholesterol levels did not change. Smoking or tobacco use was seen in five males (2.3%). Prevalence of obesity (BMI > or = 25.0 kg/m2) was in 104 (48.6%) males and 18 (51.4%) females. Truncal obesity diagnosed by WHR > 0.9 in males and > 0.8 in females was in 160 (72.4%) males and 23 (65.7%) females and a large waist circumference, > or = 100 cm in males and > or = 90 cm in females, was in 58 (26.2%) males and 7 (20.0%) females. Hypertension (> or = 140/90) was in 74 (33.5%) males and 7 (20%) females. A high prevalence of diabetes diagnosed using fasting blood glucose > or = 126 mg/dl or previous history was noted in males 19 (9.4%), females 4 (12.9%). Prevalence of high total cholesterol levels > or = 200 mg/dl was in 91 (44.8%) males and 10 (32.3%) females. High LDL cholesterol level (> or = 100 mg/dl) was in 144 (70.9%) males and 22 (70.9%) females and LDL levels > or = 130 mg/dl in 70 (34.5%) males and 9 (29.0%) female physicians. High triglyceride levels (> or = 200 mg/dl) were in 38 (18.7%) males and 4 (12.9%) females. Electrocardiographic abnormalities were present in seven subjects: Q-waves in two males and one female and ST-T changes in three males and one female. BMI correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with systolic BP, fasting glucose, and triglycerides and WHR with systolic BP, diastolic BP, fasting glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
There is a high prevalence of obesity, truncal obesity, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia in Indian physicians while smoking, low HDL cholesterol and hypertriglyceridemia is low. The overall coronary risk is lower among Indian physicians as compared to previous Indian population studies.