Reactive oxygen species, antioxidant systems and nitric oxide in peroxisomes.J Exp Bot. 2002 May; 53(372):1255-72.JE
Peroxisomes are subcellular organelles with an essentially oxidative type of metabolism. Like chloroplasts and mitochondria, plant peroxisomes also produce superoxide radicals (O2*(-)) and there are, at least, two sites of superoxide generation: one in the organelle matrix, the generating system being xanthine oxidase, and another site in the peroxisomal membranes dependent on NAD(P)H. In peroxisomal membranes, three integral polypeptides (PMPs) with molecular masses of 18, 29 and 32 kDa have been shown to generate radicals O2*(-). Besides catalase, several antioxidative systems have been demonstrated in plant peroxisomes, including different superoxide dismutases, the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, and three NADP-dependent dehydrogenases. A CuZn-SOD and two Mn-SODs have been purified and characterized from different types of peroxisomes. The four enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle (ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase) as well as the antioxidants glutathione and ascorbate have been found in plant peroxisomes. The recycling of NADPH from NADP(+) can be carried out in peroxisomes by three dehydrogenases: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase. In the last decade, different experimental evidence has suggested the existence of cellular functions for peroxisomes related to reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the recent demonstration of the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in plant peroxisomes implies that these organelles could also have a function in plant cells as a source of signal molecules like nitric oxide (NO*), superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and possibly S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO).