Prevalence of coronary heart disease and risk factors in an urban Indian population: Jaipur Heart Watch-2.Indian Heart J. 2002 Jan-Feb; 54(1):59-66.IH
The prevalence of risk factors for coronary heart disease has been inadequately studied in India. A repeat cross-sectional survey was carried out to evaluate the changes in the major coronary risk factors in the urban population of Jaipur previously studied in the early 1990s.
METHODS AND RESULTS
Randomly selected adults > or =20 years of age were studied using stratified sampling. The target study sample was 1800 with a population proportionate gender distribution (males 960, females 840). Coronary risk factors, anthropometric variables, blood pressure, ECG, fasting blood glucose and lipids were evaluated. A total of 1123 subjects (62.4%) (males 550, females 573) were examined. Fasting blood samples were available in 523 males and 559 females. Overall coronary heart diesase prevalence, diagnosed by history or ECG changes, was found in 34 males (6.18%) and 58 females (10.12%). Risk factor prevalence showed that smoking/tobacco use was present in 201 males (36.5%) and 67 females (11.7%). Physical inactivity, either work-related or leisure time, was seen in 157 males (28.5%) and 130 females (22.7%). Hypertension (> or =140 and/or 90 mmHg) was present in 200 males (36.4%) and 215 females (37.5%). Diabetes diagnosed by history or fasting glucose > or =126 mg/dl was found in 72 males (13.1%) and 65 females (11.3%). Obesity, body mass index > or =27 kg/m2 was present in 135 males (24.5%) and 173 females (30.2%), while truncal obesity (waist:hip >0.9 males, >0.8 females) was found in 316 males (57.4%) and 392 females (68.4%). The most common dyslipidemia in both males and females was low HDL-cholesterol (<40 mg/dl: males 54.9%, females 54.2%). High total cholesterol levels of > or =200 mg/dl (males 37.4%, females 4.1%), high LDL-cholesterol levels of > or =130 mg/dl (males 37.0%, females 45.8%) and high levels of triglycerides > or = 150 mg/dl (males 32.3%, females 28.6%) were also seen in a significant number. Hypertension, obesity, truncal obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemias increased significantly with age in both males and females (Mantel-Haenzel chi2 for trend, p<0.05).
There is a high prevalence of standard coronary risk factors--smoking, physical inactivity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and obesity--as well as factors peculiar to south Asians--truncal obesity, low HDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides--in this urban Indian population. As compared to a previous study in the early 1900s in a similar population, there is a significant increase in the number of people with obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemias.