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The effect of high- and low-glycemic index energy restricted diets on plasma lipid and glucose profiles in type 2 diabetic subjects with varying glycemic control.
J Am Coll Nutr 2002; 21(2):120-7JA

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether glycemic index (GI) differentially affects improved glucose and lipid profiles observed during weight loss in overweight subjects previously diagnosed with type 2 diabetes with variable glucose tolerance.

METHODS

Twenty-three female and twenty-two male overweight subjects participated in 12 weeks of energy restriction (average BMI 33.2 kg/m2, age 56.7 years, glycated hemoglobin (GHb) 6.7%). After a four-week run-in on a high saturated fat (SFA) diet (1540 kcal/day, 17% SFA), the free-living subjects were randomly assigned to either a high- (75 GI units) or low- (43 GI units) GI diet (1440 kcal/day, 60% carbohydrate, 5% SFA) for eight weeks. Weight, serum lipids, plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin were measured every four weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was also performed at baseline, weeks 4 and 12. From the baseline OGTT results subjects were divided into three groups of low, median and high glucose tolerance.

RESULTS

At baseline, BMI, age and glycated hemoglobin concentrations were not different between subjects allocated to the high- or low-GI diets. After four weeks, weight loss was 3.6+/-0.3 kg. Fasting glucose (-5.6%), glycated hemoglobin (-2.8%), area under the glucose curve (-13.0%) and triglyceride (-13.8%) concentrations were reduced (p < 0.02). Between weeks 4 and 12 reductions were observed in weight (-4.9%), fasting glucose (-4.6%), area under glucose curve (-10.1%), glycated hemoglobin (-7.2%), triglyceride (-7.5%) and LDL-C (-13.2%) concentrations. Weight loss was not different between low and high-GI diets. However, glycated hemoglobin was reduced twofold more in subjects consuming a low-GI diet as compared to subjects consuming a high-GI diet, but this was not statistically significant. LDL concentrations were also reduced more in subjects with low glucose tolerance on the low-GI diet (p = 0.02).

CONCLUSION

Weight loss produces substantial improvements in glycemic control and lipoprotein metabolism. Lowering the glycemic index of high carbohydrate, low fat diets increases the fall in LDL cholesterol in subjects with type 2 diabetes with low glucose tolerance, but has little effect on glycemic control.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Physiology, Adelaide University, Health Sciences & Nutrition, South Australia, Australia.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11999539

Citation

Heilbronn, Leonie K., et al. "The Effect of High- and Low-glycemic Index Energy Restricted Diets On Plasma Lipid and Glucose Profiles in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects With Varying Glycemic Control." Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 21, no. 2, 2002, pp. 120-7.
Heilbronn LK, Noakes M, Clifton PM. The effect of high- and low-glycemic index energy restricted diets on plasma lipid and glucose profiles in type 2 diabetic subjects with varying glycemic control. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002;21(2):120-7.
Heilbronn, L. K., Noakes, M., & Clifton, P. M. (2002). The effect of high- and low-glycemic index energy restricted diets on plasma lipid and glucose profiles in type 2 diabetic subjects with varying glycemic control. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 21(2), pp. 120-7.
Heilbronn LK, Noakes M, Clifton PM. The Effect of High- and Low-glycemic Index Energy Restricted Diets On Plasma Lipid and Glucose Profiles in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects With Varying Glycemic Control. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002;21(2):120-7. PubMed PMID: 11999539.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The effect of high- and low-glycemic index energy restricted diets on plasma lipid and glucose profiles in type 2 diabetic subjects with varying glycemic control. AU - Heilbronn,Leonie K, AU - Noakes,Manny, AU - Clifton,Peter M, PY - 2002/5/10/pubmed PY - 2002/10/9/medline PY - 2002/5/10/entrez SP - 120 EP - 7 JF - Journal of the American College of Nutrition JO - J Am Coll Nutr VL - 21 IS - 2 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To determine whether glycemic index (GI) differentially affects improved glucose and lipid profiles observed during weight loss in overweight subjects previously diagnosed with type 2 diabetes with variable glucose tolerance. METHODS: Twenty-three female and twenty-two male overweight subjects participated in 12 weeks of energy restriction (average BMI 33.2 kg/m2, age 56.7 years, glycated hemoglobin (GHb) 6.7%). After a four-week run-in on a high saturated fat (SFA) diet (1540 kcal/day, 17% SFA), the free-living subjects were randomly assigned to either a high- (75 GI units) or low- (43 GI units) GI diet (1440 kcal/day, 60% carbohydrate, 5% SFA) for eight weeks. Weight, serum lipids, plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin were measured every four weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was also performed at baseline, weeks 4 and 12. From the baseline OGTT results subjects were divided into three groups of low, median and high glucose tolerance. RESULTS: At baseline, BMI, age and glycated hemoglobin concentrations were not different between subjects allocated to the high- or low-GI diets. After four weeks, weight loss was 3.6+/-0.3 kg. Fasting glucose (-5.6%), glycated hemoglobin (-2.8%), area under the glucose curve (-13.0%) and triglyceride (-13.8%) concentrations were reduced (p < 0.02). Between weeks 4 and 12 reductions were observed in weight (-4.9%), fasting glucose (-4.6%), area under glucose curve (-10.1%), glycated hemoglobin (-7.2%), triglyceride (-7.5%) and LDL-C (-13.2%) concentrations. Weight loss was not different between low and high-GI diets. However, glycated hemoglobin was reduced twofold more in subjects consuming a low-GI diet as compared to subjects consuming a high-GI diet, but this was not statistically significant. LDL concentrations were also reduced more in subjects with low glucose tolerance on the low-GI diet (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Weight loss produces substantial improvements in glycemic control and lipoprotein metabolism. Lowering the glycemic index of high carbohydrate, low fat diets increases the fall in LDL cholesterol in subjects with type 2 diabetes with low glucose tolerance, but has little effect on glycemic control. SN - 0731-5724 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11999539/The_effect_of_high__and_low_glycemic_index_energy_restricted_diets_on_plasma_lipid_and_glucose_profiles_in_type_2_diabetic_subjects_with_varying_glycemic_control_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/bloodsugar.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -