HIV status and sociodemographic correlates of maternal body size and wasting during pregnancy.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 May; 56(5):415-24.EJ
To examine HIV status and sociodemographic variables as correlates of body size (height, body mass index (BMI), and mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC)) and wasting (MUAC <22 cm) in pregnant women.
Four antenatal clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Women presenting for first prenatal visit before the 23rd week of gestation, between April 1995 and July 1997 (n=13 760).
Mean MUAC, BMI and height were 25.5 cm, 23.5 kg/m(2) and 155.1 cm, respectively. The prevalence of HIV infection was 13.1% and the overall prevalence of wasting was 4.7%. Wasting was 34% (95% CI=3%, 73%) more prevalent among HIV-infected than in uninfected mothers, after adjusting for week of gestation, height and sociodemographic indicators. The risk of wasting associated with HIV infection was highest among women with low level of education or unable to contribute to the household income. From a multiple linear regression model, BMI was positively associated with mother's age, level of education and money spent on food, but not with HIV infection, after adjusting for week of gestation. In multivariate analysis, height increased monotonically by categories of maternal age and level of education, and was also positively correlated with the ability to contribute to household income, the amount of money spent on food per person per day, and having a professional partner.
HIV infection is a significant risk factor for wasting among pregnant women, particularly in groups of low socioeconomic status (SES). SES indicators are strongly correlated with maternal height and with BMI during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy independently of HIV status.
The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD R01 32257), and the Fogarty International Center (NIH D43 TW00004).