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The effect of conventional vitamin D(2) supplementation on serum 25(OH)D concentration is weak among peripubertal Finnish girls: a 3-y prospective study.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To study the effect of vitamin D supplementation and the impact of summer season on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D) in Finnish 9-15-y-old girls.

DESIGN

Three-year follow-up study with vitamin D(2) supplementation using D(2) 10 microg daily from October to January for the first and from October to February for the second winter as well as 20 microg daily from October to March for the third winter.

SETTING

Paavo Nurmi Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

SUBJECTS

A total of 171 female volunteers aged 9-15 y.

METHODS

Vitamin D and calcium intakes were estimated by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). S-25(OH)D was measured by radioimmunoassay.

RESULTS

The median daily dietary intakes of vitamin D and calcium were 3.8 microg (interquartile range (IQR) 2.7-5.0) and 1451 mg (IQR 1196-1812), respectively, over 3 y. The prevalence of severe hypovitaminosis D (S-25(OH)D<20 nmol/l) was 14% and of moderate hypovitaminosis D (20 nmol/l < or = S-25(OH)D < or = 37.5 nmol/l) 75% at baseline in winter. None of the participants had severe hypovitaminosis D in summer. The effect of 10 microg of D(2) daily was insufficient to raise S-25(OH)D from baseline. The daily supplementation of 20 microg of D(2) increased S-25(OH)D significantly in wintertime compared with the non-supplement users (to 45.5 vs 31.8 nmol/l; P<0.001). None of the subjects with vitamin D(2) supplementation approximately 20 microg daily had severe hypovitaminosis D; however, 38% of those participants had moderate hypovitaminosis D at 36 months. Sun exposure in summer raised mean S-25(OH)D to 62.0 nmol/l. Both the daily supplementation of approximately 20 microg of D(2) and summer sunlight exposure had more effect on those who had severe hypovitaminosis than those who had a normal vitamin D status (increase of 24.2 vs 0.9 nmol/l (P<0.001), and 38.8 vs 18.2 nmol/l (P<0.001), respectively).

CONCLUSION

Vitamin D supplementation daily with 20 microg is needed to prevent hypovitaminosis D in peripubertal Finnish girls in winter. Sunlight exposure in summer is more effective than approximately 20 microg of D(2) supplementation daily in winter to raise S-25(OH)D. Both the daily supplementation with 20 microg of D(2) and summertime sunlight exposure had more effect on those who had severe hypovitaminosis D than those who had a normal vitamin D status.

SPONSORSHIP

Supported by the Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation and the Medical Research Foundation of the Turku University Central Hospital.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Paavo Nurmi Centre, Sport and Exercise Medicine Unit, Department of Physiology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

    , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2
    Adolescent
    Calcium, Dietary
    Child
    Dietary Supplements
    Ergocalciferols
    Female
    Finland
    Humans
    Longitudinal Studies
    Prevalence
    Prospective Studies
    Radioimmunoassay
    Seasons
    Sunlight
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    Vitamin D Deficiency

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    12001014

    Citation

    Lehtonen-Veromaa, M, et al. "The Effect of Conventional Vitamin D(2) Supplementation On Serum 25(OH)D Concentration Is Weak Among Peripubertal Finnish Girls: a 3-y Prospective Study." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 56, no. 5, 2002, pp. 431-7.
    Lehtonen-Veromaa M, Möttönen T, Nuotio I, et al. The effect of conventional vitamin D(2) supplementation on serum 25(OH)D concentration is weak among peripubertal Finnish girls: a 3-y prospective study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002;56(5):431-7.
    Lehtonen-Veromaa, M., Möttönen, T., Nuotio, I., Irjala, K., & Viikari, J. (2002). The effect of conventional vitamin D(2) supplementation on serum 25(OH)D concentration is weak among peripubertal Finnish girls: a 3-y prospective study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 56(5), pp. 431-7.
    Lehtonen-Veromaa M, et al. The Effect of Conventional Vitamin D(2) Supplementation On Serum 25(OH)D Concentration Is Weak Among Peripubertal Finnish Girls: a 3-y Prospective Study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002;56(5):431-7. PubMed PMID: 12001014.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The effect of conventional vitamin D(2) supplementation on serum 25(OH)D concentration is weak among peripubertal Finnish girls: a 3-y prospective study. AU - Lehtonen-Veromaa,M, AU - Möttönen,T, AU - Nuotio,I, AU - Irjala,K, AU - Viikari,J, PY - 2001/04/24/received PY - 2001/08/22/revised PY - 2001/09/06/accepted PY - 2002/5/10/pubmed PY - 2002/8/1/medline PY - 2002/5/10/entrez SP - 431 EP - 7 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 56 IS - 5 N2 - OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of vitamin D supplementation and the impact of summer season on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D) in Finnish 9-15-y-old girls. DESIGN: Three-year follow-up study with vitamin D(2) supplementation using D(2) 10 microg daily from October to January for the first and from October to February for the second winter as well as 20 microg daily from October to March for the third winter. SETTING: Paavo Nurmi Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland. SUBJECTS: A total of 171 female volunteers aged 9-15 y. METHODS: Vitamin D and calcium intakes were estimated by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). S-25(OH)D was measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: The median daily dietary intakes of vitamin D and calcium were 3.8 microg (interquartile range (IQR) 2.7-5.0) and 1451 mg (IQR 1196-1812), respectively, over 3 y. The prevalence of severe hypovitaminosis D (S-25(OH)D<20 nmol/l) was 14% and of moderate hypovitaminosis D (20 nmol/l < or = S-25(OH)D < or = 37.5 nmol/l) 75% at baseline in winter. None of the participants had severe hypovitaminosis D in summer. The effect of 10 microg of D(2) daily was insufficient to raise S-25(OH)D from baseline. The daily supplementation of 20 microg of D(2) increased S-25(OH)D significantly in wintertime compared with the non-supplement users (to 45.5 vs 31.8 nmol/l; P<0.001). None of the subjects with vitamin D(2) supplementation approximately 20 microg daily had severe hypovitaminosis D; however, 38% of those participants had moderate hypovitaminosis D at 36 months. Sun exposure in summer raised mean S-25(OH)D to 62.0 nmol/l. Both the daily supplementation of approximately 20 microg of D(2) and summer sunlight exposure had more effect on those who had severe hypovitaminosis than those who had a normal vitamin D status (increase of 24.2 vs 0.9 nmol/l (P<0.001), and 38.8 vs 18.2 nmol/l (P<0.001), respectively). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D supplementation daily with 20 microg is needed to prevent hypovitaminosis D in peripubertal Finnish girls in winter. Sunlight exposure in summer is more effective than approximately 20 microg of D(2) supplementation daily in winter to raise S-25(OH)D. Both the daily supplementation with 20 microg of D(2) and summertime sunlight exposure had more effect on those who had severe hypovitaminosis D than those who had a normal vitamin D status. SPONSORSHIP: Supported by the Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation and the Medical Research Foundation of the Turku University Central Hospital. SN - 0954-3007 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12001014/The_effect_of_conventional_vitamin_D_2__supplementation_on_serum_25_OH_D_concentration_is_weak_among_peripubertal_Finnish_girls:_a_3_y_prospective_study_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601330 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -