Ellagic acid and flavonoid antioxidant content of muscadine wine and juice.J Agric Food Chem. 2002 May 22; 50(11):3186-92.JA
Antioxidant properties of flavonoids and ellagic acid were characterized in eight wines and juices produced by various processing methodologies from red and white muscadine grape cultivars (Vitis rotundifolia). Juices and wines were produced by hot- and cold-pressed techniques, and additional wine was produced following on-hull fermentation for 3, 5, and 7 days. Chromatographic conditions were developed to simultaneously separate anthocyanins, ellagic acid, and flavonols and correlated to a measurement of overall antioxidant capacity (AOX), and their changes were monitored after storage for 60 days at 20 and 37 degrees C. Regression coefficients between concentrations of individual polyphenolics and AOX ranged from 0.55 for ellagic acid to 0.90 for kaempferol. Both red and white wines had higher AOX values after storage than juices made from an identical grape press, despite lower concentrations of individual polyphenolic compounds. Red wines fermented on-hull had higher initial concentrations of antioxidant polyphenolics as compared to a corresponding hot-pressed juice, but changes in AOX during storage were more affected by time than by storage temperature despite lower concentrations of flavonoids and ellagic acid present at 37 degrees C as compared to 20 degrees C. Oxidative or polymerization reactions significantly decreased levels of monomeric anthocyanins during storage with the greatest losses observed for delphinidin and petunidin 3,5-diglucosides. Processing methods for muscadine wine and juice production were important factors influencing concentrations of antioxidant flavonoids and ellagic acid, while the role of fermentation and time had the greatest influence on retention of AOX properties during storage.