MCP-1 induces inflammatory activation of human tubular epithelial cells: involvement of the transcription factors, nuclear factor-kappaB and activating protein-1.J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13(6):1534-47JA
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a potent chemokine synthesized by several cell types, e.g., inflammatory cells, such as monocytes, and resident renal cells, such as human tubular epithelial cells (TECs). Besides induction of monocyte recruitment, MCP-1 has been suggested to induce non-leukocytes to produce cytokines and adhesion molecules. Inflammation of the tubulointerstitium is a hallmark of many renal diseases and contributes to progression of renal failure; the purpose therefore of this study was to investigate the influence of MCP-1 on markers of inflammatory activation in human TECs. MCP-1 stimulated interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) synthesis in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In parallel, MCP-1 increased IL-6 and ICAM-1 mRNA expression in human TECs. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin, GF109203X, BAPTA-AM, and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate inhibited MCP-1-dependent IL-6 and ICAM-1 synthesis, suggesting the involvement of Gi-proteins, protein kinase C, intracellular Ca(2+), and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in MCP-1 signaling. Using electrophoretic gel mobility shift assay, we observed that MCP-1 stimulated binding activity of NF-kappaB. Binding activity of the activator protein-1 (AP-1), which has been implicated to regulate induction of the IL-6 gene together with NF-kappaB, was also stimulated by MCP-1. In the present experiments, NF-kappaB and AP-1 were involved in the MCP-1-mediated induction of IL-6, as demonstrated by cis element double-stranded (decoy) oligonucleotides (ODN). In contrast to IL-6 release, MCP-1-induced ICAM-1 expression was predominantly dependent on NF-kappaB activation. These results document for the first time that MCP-1 induces an inflammatory response in human TECs. This may be an important new mechanism in the pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial inflammation.