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An ecologic study of nitrate in municipal drinking water and cancer incidence in Trnava District, Slovakia.
Environ Res. 2002 Mar; 88(3):182-7.ER

Abstract

Contamination of drinking water by nitrate is an evolving public health concern since nitrate can undergo endogenous reduction to nitrite, and nitrosation of nitrites can form N-nitroso compounds, which are potent carcinogens. We conducted an ecologic study to determine whether nitrate levels in drinking water were correlated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and cancers of the digestive and urinary tracts in an agricultural district (Trnava District; population 237,000) of the Slovak Republic. Routinely collected nitrate data (1975-1995) for villages using public water supplies were computerized, and each village was categorized into low (0-10 mg/L), medium (10.1-20 mg/L), or high (20.1-50 mg/L) average levels of total nitrate in drinking water. Observed cases of cancer in each of these villages were ascertained through the district cancer registry for the time period 1986-1995. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for all cancer and selected cancer sites were calculated by indirect standardization using age- and sex-specific incidence rates from the entire district. For all cancer in women, SIRs increased from villages with low (SIR=0.87; 95% CI 0.72-0.95) to medium (SIR=1.07; 95% CI 1.00-1.13) to high (SIR=1.14; 1.06-1.22) levels of nitrate (P for trend <0.001); there was a similar trend for all cancer in men from low (SIR=0.90; 95% CI 0.81-0.99) to medium (SIR=1.08, 95% CI 1.02-1.16), but not for high (SIR=0.94; 0.88-1.02), nitrate levels (P for trend <0.001). This pattern in the SIRs (from low to high nitrate level) was also seen for stomach cancer in women (0.81, 0.94, 1.24; P for trend=0.10), colorectal cancer in women (0.64, 1.11, 1.29; P for trend <0.001) and men (0.77, 0.99, 1.07; P for trend=0.051), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in women (0.45, 0.90, 1.35; P for trend=0.13) and men (0.25, 1.66, and 1.09; P for trend=0.017). There were no associations for kidney or bladder cancer. These ecologic data support the hypothesis that there is a positive association between nitrate in drinking water and non-Hodgkin lymphoma and colorectal cancer.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Public Health Institute in Trnava, Limbova 6, Trnava, 917 09, Slovak Republic.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

12051796

Citation

Gulis, Gabriel, et al. "An Ecologic Study of Nitrate in Municipal Drinking Water and Cancer Incidence in Trnava District, Slovakia." Environmental Research, vol. 88, no. 3, 2002, pp. 182-7.
Gulis G, Czompolyova M, Cerhan JR. An ecologic study of nitrate in municipal drinking water and cancer incidence in Trnava District, Slovakia. Environ Res. 2002;88(3):182-7.
Gulis, G., Czompolyova, M., & Cerhan, J. R. (2002). An ecologic study of nitrate in municipal drinking water and cancer incidence in Trnava District, Slovakia. Environmental Research, 88(3), 182-7.
Gulis G, Czompolyova M, Cerhan JR. An Ecologic Study of Nitrate in Municipal Drinking Water and Cancer Incidence in Trnava District, Slovakia. Environ Res. 2002;88(3):182-7. PubMed PMID: 12051796.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - An ecologic study of nitrate in municipal drinking water and cancer incidence in Trnava District, Slovakia. AU - Gulis,Gabriel, AU - Czompolyova,Monika, AU - Cerhan,James R, PY - 2002/6/8/pubmed PY - 2002/6/14/medline PY - 2002/6/8/entrez SP - 182 EP - 7 JF - Environmental research JO - Environ. Res. VL - 88 IS - 3 N2 - Contamination of drinking water by nitrate is an evolving public health concern since nitrate can undergo endogenous reduction to nitrite, and nitrosation of nitrites can form N-nitroso compounds, which are potent carcinogens. We conducted an ecologic study to determine whether nitrate levels in drinking water were correlated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and cancers of the digestive and urinary tracts in an agricultural district (Trnava District; population 237,000) of the Slovak Republic. Routinely collected nitrate data (1975-1995) for villages using public water supplies were computerized, and each village was categorized into low (0-10 mg/L), medium (10.1-20 mg/L), or high (20.1-50 mg/L) average levels of total nitrate in drinking water. Observed cases of cancer in each of these villages were ascertained through the district cancer registry for the time period 1986-1995. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for all cancer and selected cancer sites were calculated by indirect standardization using age- and sex-specific incidence rates from the entire district. For all cancer in women, SIRs increased from villages with low (SIR=0.87; 95% CI 0.72-0.95) to medium (SIR=1.07; 95% CI 1.00-1.13) to high (SIR=1.14; 1.06-1.22) levels of nitrate (P for trend <0.001); there was a similar trend for all cancer in men from low (SIR=0.90; 95% CI 0.81-0.99) to medium (SIR=1.08, 95% CI 1.02-1.16), but not for high (SIR=0.94; 0.88-1.02), nitrate levels (P for trend <0.001). This pattern in the SIRs (from low to high nitrate level) was also seen for stomach cancer in women (0.81, 0.94, 1.24; P for trend=0.10), colorectal cancer in women (0.64, 1.11, 1.29; P for trend <0.001) and men (0.77, 0.99, 1.07; P for trend=0.051), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in women (0.45, 0.90, 1.35; P for trend=0.13) and men (0.25, 1.66, and 1.09; P for trend=0.017). There were no associations for kidney or bladder cancer. These ecologic data support the hypothesis that there is a positive association between nitrate in drinking water and non-Hodgkin lymphoma and colorectal cancer. SN - 0013-9351 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12051796/An_ecologic_study_of_nitrate_in_municipal_drinking_water_and_cancer_incidence_in_Trnava_District_Slovakia_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0013935102943318 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -