Prevention of cytokine-induced apoptosis by insulin-like growth factor-I is independent of cell adhesion molecules in HT29-D4 colon carcinoma cells-evidence for a NF-kappaB-dependent survival mechanism.Cell Death Differ. 2002 Jul; 9(7):768-79.CD
We have previously established that insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, -II and insulin exert a strong protective effect against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-induced apoptosis in interferon-gamma (IFN)-sensitized HT29-D4 human colon carcinoma cells. In this study, we report that this effect was still operative when cells were cultured in the absence of integrin- and E-cadherin-mediated cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell interactions. In this model, IGF-I did not activate the focal adhesion kinase, whereas it induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate-1 and activation of the extracellular signal-related kinase 1 and 2, p38, phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase and protein kinase B/Akt. However, the use of specific inhibitors indicated that these pathways did not play a role in the adhesion-independent IGF-I anti-apoptotic signal. In contrast, inhibition of the NF-kappaB activation induced a complete reversal of the IGF-I anchorage-independent protective effect. Correspondingly, IGF-I markedly enhanced the TNF- and IFN/TNF-induced NF-kappaB-dependent interleukin-8 production. Our results provide evidence that IGF-I induces resistance against cytokine-induced cell death even in the absence of cell adhesion-mediated signaling. NF-kappaB appears to be a key mediator of this anti-apoptotic effect that should contribute to the resistance of colon cancer cells to immune-destruction during metastasis.