[Direct percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in patients with acute myocardial infarct treated at the Cardiac Center of the General Medical School Hospital in Prague: a 1-year retrospective study].Vnitr Lek. 2002 May; 48(5):373-9.VL
Direct percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (d-PTCA) in patients with acute myocardial infarctions (AIM) has become an alternative of thrombolytic treatment. If the involved department has adequate experience the success rate of the procedure is high and the immediate and long-term results are better than those of thrombolysis. Moreover contrary to thrombolytic treatment successful percutaneous coronary intervention in AIM is more beneficial for patients also later than 6 hours after the development of infarction pain. In the Cardiocentre of the General Faculty Hospital (GFH) patients with AIM are constantly attended, i.e. those indicated for reperfusion therapy are treated solely by the d-PTCA method.
OBJECTIVE AND METHOD
Retrospective analysis of d-PTCA in AIM made during the annual period from Jan. 1 2000 to Dec. 31 2000. Into the observation study patients were included with clinical and/or ECG signs of AIM when the period from the onset of pain to the beginning of intervention did not exceed 12 hours. All patients were given before the procedures 500 mg of acetylsalicylic acid and 10,000 u. heparin. Cardiac catheterization was implemented by the percutaneous Seldinger technique via the a. femoralis l.dx., in exceptional cases from the left femoral artery. An approach via the a. radialis and/or a. brachialis was not used in any of the patients. From the investigation patients were excluded who had before the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) a thrombolytic preparation (so-called rescue-PTCA).
During the mentioned period in the Cardiocentre of the GFH a total of 673 PTCA were performed, incl. 127 (18.9%) d-PTCA in patients with AIM. In the mentioned group of 127 patients subjected to intervention were 87 (68.5%) men and 40 (31.5%) women. The mean age of the men was 59.1 +/- 12 years and the mean age of the women 68.2 +/- 12 years. As to the main risk factors of coronary atherosclerosis arterial hypertension was present in 48%, smoking in 42%, diabetes in 23% and hyperlipoproteinaemia in 31% of the treated patients. More than one third of the patients had a history of myocardial infarction (38%). The infarcted artery was the r. interventricularis anterior (LAD) in 51 (40.2%), the right coronary artery (RCA) in 54 (42.5%), the r. circumflex (LCX) in 16 (12.6%), the left main coronary artery in 2 (1.6%) and the bypass in 4 (3.1%). Multiple coronary affections were recorded in 80 (63%) patients, affections of one artery in 47 (37%). Primary procedural success (flow TIMI 3/2) was achieved in 121 patients (95.3%). Normal flow through the infarcted artery TIMI 3 was achieved in 118/127 (85.8%) patients. In 91 (71.7%) into the infarcted artery a coronary stent was implanted, during hospitalization no subacute stenosis of the stent developed. The mean period between the onset of infarction pain--injection was 4.4 +/- 2.3 hours. The mean period of the entire procedures was 48 +/- 14.5 minutes. As contrast material only non-ionic contrast substances were used (Iomeron 350) with a mean consumption of 150 ml per patient. The mean skiascopic time was 13.6 +/- 1.8 min. A total of 9 (7.1%) patients were treated with GP IIb/IIIa receptor blockers (abciximab). The total hospitalization mortality of the intervened group was 7.1% (9 patients). In a sub-group of 9 patients who at the onset of the procedure were in cardiogenic shock 3 (33%) died. The hospitalization mortality of the sub-group of patients with AIM without cardiogenic shock, treated with d-PTCA was 5.1% (6/118). During hospitalization the authors did not observe any intracranial haemorrhage.
The group of subjects with AIM subjected to catheterization who are treated by d-PTCA is relatively numerous in our department. According to a number of clinical studies successful d-PTCA in AIM gives better short-term and long-term results as compared with thrombolytic therapy. The primary success rate of d-PTCA was high and the hospital mortality was low and comparable with contemporary data in the literature.
Direct PTCA is effective treatment in patients with acute myocardial infarction. The authors results confirm the high procedural success rate and acceptable hospital mortality. These favourable results of an invasive approach to treatment of AIM must be compared in future with bolus thrombolytic treatment by new types of thrombolytic preparations in combination with anti-platelet treatment with blockers of platelet glycoprotein receptors IIb/IIIa with/or without subsequent percutaneous coronary intervention.