Diet and 20-year chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality in middle-aged men from three European countries.Eur J Clin Nutr 2002; 56(7):638-43EJ
To investigate the relation of baseline antioxidant, fruit, vegetable and fish intake with 20 y chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality in middle-aged men from three European countries.
Prospective study (1970-1990).
Five population-based cohorts of middle-aged men from Finland, Italy and The Netherlands.
A total of 2917 men aged 50-69 y at baseline.
Baseline information on diet was collected using the cross-check dietary history method. After 20 y of follow-up the underlying cause of death of those who died was established centrally. Survival analyses were performed using the Cox Proportional Hazards Model.
After adjustment for age, smoking and country, we observed an inverse trend (P-trend <0.05) of 20 y COPD mortality across tertiles of fruit and vitamin E intake. No trend was observed for vegetables, fish, vitamin C and beta-carotene. When modelled continuously, a 100 g increase in fruit intake was associated with a 24% lower COPD mortality risk (RR=0.76, 95% CI=0.60-0.92). For vitamin E intake (per 5 mg) the RR was 0.77 (95% CI=0.55-1.06), after adjustment for age, smoking and country. Additional adjustment for body mass index, total energy intake and alcohol consumption reduced the RR to 0.86 (95% CI=0.69-1.07, P=0.12) for fruit and 0.93 (95% CI=0.65-1.33) for vitamin E.
Our results suggest a protective effect of fruit and possibly vitamin E intake against COPD. No effect was observed for intake of vitamin C, beta-carotene, vegetables and fish.