Influence of dietary carbohydrates and glycaemic response on subjective appetite and food intake in healthy elderly persons.Int J Food Sci Nutr 2002; 53(4):305-16IJ
Increased satiety and decreased food intake are reported following the consumption of low glycaemic index (GI) foods, which gradually increase blood glucose. This observation, however, is not uniformly supported and few studies have examined the impact of different GI foods on satiety and intake in the elderly. After an overnight fast, 10 men and 10 women (aged 60-82 years) consumed similar amounts of available carbohydrate as high (glucose drink or potatoes) or low (barley) GI foods or a non-energy placebo drink on four mornings. Blood glucose and subjective appetite were measured throughout a 120 min post-ingestion period, followed by consumption of an ad libitum lunch. Differences in plasma glucose after test food ingestion (glucose > potatoes > barley > placebo; P < 0.03) did not predict subjective appetite or lunch intake. Potatoes increased subjective satiety the most, followed by barley, then glucose, which trended towards greater satiety than placebo. Potatoes led to less hunger than placebo (P = 0.0023) and less prospective consumption than the other three foods (P < 0.0083), and potatoes and barley led to greater fullness than glucose and placebo (P < 0.0001). Lunch intake was decreased, compared with placebo (502 +/- 47 kcal, P < 0.031), by potatoes (405 +/- 40 kcal) and barley (441 +/- 41 kcal); however, only potatoes (41.9 +/- 12.3%) led to greater compensation at lunch for test food ingestion compared with glucose (11.9 +/- 9.5%, P = 0.016). These results suggest that elderly subjects are sensitive to the effects of different foods on subjective appetite and food intake, and that the GI of the foods tested did not predict their effects on satiety and food intake.