Toxic effects of Irgarol 1051 on phytoplankton and macrophytes in Lake Geneva.Water Res. 2002 Apr; 36(8):2020-8.WR
Irgarol 1051 is a recent herbicidal compound, inhibitor of photosynthesis, used in antifouling paints. This toxic is persistent in aquatic environments, with low abiotic and biotic degradation, highly phytotoxic, and has already been detected in estuaries and coastal areas, with suspected negative impacts on non-target organisms (aquatic plants and algae). We measured the toxicity of Irgarol 1051 to macrophytes and phytoplankton from Lake Geneva (between Switzerland and France) by determining chlorophyll fluorescence yield, and phytoplankton primary production. Long-term toxicity for phytoplankton was estimated in a microcosm study, and growth inhibition tests were performed with isolated algal strains. The concentration of Irgarol 1051 was analysed in the water, and the most polluted site showed a higher level (up to 135 ng/L) than the lowest observed effect concentration for phytoplankton (8-80 ng/L), while the macrophytes appeared to be more tolerant to Irgarol 1051 in short-term tests. The microcosm study showed that phytoplankton structure might be even more sensitive to Irgarol 1051.