Binding of hemoglobin to red cell membranes with eosin-5-maleimide-labeled band 3: analysis of centrifugation and fluorescence data.Biochemistry 2002; 41(27):8630-7B
We have studied the binding of hemoglobin to the red cell membrane by centrifugation and fluorescence methods. The intact red cell was labeled with eosin-5-maleimide (EM), which specifically reacts with lysine 430 of band 3. Even though this residue is not part of the cytoplasmic domain of band 3 (cdb3) associated with hemoglobin binding, fluorescence quenching was observed when hemoglobin bound to inside-out vesicles (IOVs). The use of fluorescence quenching to measure band 3 binding was quantitatively compared with the binding determined by centrifugation, which measures binding to band 3 and non-band 3 sites. For the centrifugation it was necessary to include the non-band 3 association constants determined from chymotrypsin-treated IOVs. The binding of hemoglobin to band 3 was interpreted in terms of the binding of two hemoglobin tetramers to each band 3 dimer. An anticooperative interaction associated with the conformational change produced when hemoglobin binds results in a 2.8-fold decrease in the intrinsic constant of (1.54 +/- 0.25) x 10(7) M(-1) for the binding of the second hemoglobin molecule. From the changes in lifetime produced by binding the first and second hemoglobin molecules, it was possible to show that the conformational change associated with binding the second hemoglobin molecule results in a decrease of the heme-eosin distance from 47.90 to 44.78 A. Reaction of cyanate with the alpha-amino group of hemoglobin (HbOCN) is shown to produce a very dramatic decrease in the binding of hemoglobin to both the band 3 and non-band 3 sites. The intrinsic constant for binding the first hemoglobin molecule to band 3 decreases by a factor of 29 to (5.34 +/- 0.15) x 10(5) M(-1). The anticooperative interaction is greater with the intrinsic constant decreasing by a factor of 3.8 for the binding of the second hemoglobin tetramer to band 3. In addition, the nature of the conformational change produced by binding hemoglobin is very different with the second HbOCN increasing the heme-eosin distance to 55.99 A. The utilization of eosin-5-maleimide-reacted red cell membrane to study hemoglobin binding makes it possible to directly study the binding to band 3. At the same time a sensitive probe of the conformational changes, which occur when hemoglobin binds to band 3, is provided.