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Effects of long-term training specificity on maximal strength and power of the upper and lower extremities in athletes from different sports.
Eur J Appl Physiol. 2002 Jul; 87(3):264-71.EJ

Abstract

Maximal concentric one repetition maximum half-squat (1RM(HS)), bench-press (1RM(BP)), power-load curves during concentric actions with loads ranging from 30% to 100% of 1RM(HS) and 1RM(BP)were examined in 70 male subjects divided into five groups: weightlifters (WL, n=11), handball players (HP, n=19), amateur road cyclists (RC, n=18), middle-distance runners (MDR, n=10) and age-matched control subjects (C, n=12). The 1RM(HS)values in WL, HP and RC were 50%, 29% and 28% greater, respectively, (P<0.001-0.01) than those recorded for MDR and C. The half-squat average power outputs at all loads examined (from 30% to 100%) in WL and HP (P<0.001 at 45% and 60% with HP) were higher (P<0.05-0.001) than those in MDR, RC and C. Average power output at the load of 30% of 1RM(HS) in RC was higher (P<0.05) than that recorded in MDR and C. Maximal power output was produced at the load of 60% for HP, MDR and C, and at the load of 45% for WL and RC. The 1RM(BP) in WL was larger (P<0.05) than those recorded in HP, RC, MDR and C. In the bench press, average muscle power outputs in WL and HP were higher (P<0.05-0.001) than those in MDR, RC and C, and were maximized at a load of 30% of 1RM for WL and HP, and at 45% for RC, MDR and C. In addition, the velocities that elicited the maximal power in the lower extremities were lower (approximately 0.75 m.s(-1)) than those occurring in the upper extremities (approximately 1 m.s(-1)). The data suggest that the magnitude of the sport-related differences in strength and/or muscle power output may be explained in part by differences in muscle cross-sectional area, fibre type distribution and in the muscle mechanics of the upper and lower limbs as well as by training background.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Centro de Investigación y Medicina del Deporte, Gobierno de Navarra, C/Paulino Caballero 13, 31002 Pamplona (Navarra), Spain. mizquierdo@jet.esNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Comparative Study
Controlled Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

12111288

Citation

Izquierdo, Mikel, et al. "Effects of Long-term Training Specificity On Maximal Strength and Power of the Upper and Lower Extremities in Athletes From Different Sports." European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 87, no. 3, 2002, pp. 264-71.
Izquierdo M, Häkkinen K, Gonzalez-Badillo JJ, et al. Effects of long-term training specificity on maximal strength and power of the upper and lower extremities in athletes from different sports. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2002;87(3):264-71.
Izquierdo, M., Häkkinen, K., Gonzalez-Badillo, J. J., Ibáñez, J., & Gorostiaga, E. M. (2002). Effects of long-term training specificity on maximal strength and power of the upper and lower extremities in athletes from different sports. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 87(3), 264-71.
Izquierdo M, et al. Effects of Long-term Training Specificity On Maximal Strength and Power of the Upper and Lower Extremities in Athletes From Different Sports. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2002;87(3):264-71. PubMed PMID: 12111288.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of long-term training specificity on maximal strength and power of the upper and lower extremities in athletes from different sports. AU - Izquierdo,Mikel, AU - Häkkinen,Keijo, AU - Gonzalez-Badillo,Juan J, AU - Ibáñez,Javier, AU - Gorostiaga,Esteban M, Y1 - 2002/05/22/ PY - 2002/03/19/accepted PY - 2002/7/12/pubmed PY - 2003/2/14/medline PY - 2002/7/12/entrez SP - 264 EP - 71 JF - European journal of applied physiology JO - Eur J Appl Physiol VL - 87 IS - 3 N2 - Maximal concentric one repetition maximum half-squat (1RM(HS)), bench-press (1RM(BP)), power-load curves during concentric actions with loads ranging from 30% to 100% of 1RM(HS) and 1RM(BP)were examined in 70 male subjects divided into five groups: weightlifters (WL, n=11), handball players (HP, n=19), amateur road cyclists (RC, n=18), middle-distance runners (MDR, n=10) and age-matched control subjects (C, n=12). The 1RM(HS)values in WL, HP and RC were 50%, 29% and 28% greater, respectively, (P<0.001-0.01) than those recorded for MDR and C. The half-squat average power outputs at all loads examined (from 30% to 100%) in WL and HP (P<0.001 at 45% and 60% with HP) were higher (P<0.05-0.001) than those in MDR, RC and C. Average power output at the load of 30% of 1RM(HS) in RC was higher (P<0.05) than that recorded in MDR and C. Maximal power output was produced at the load of 60% for HP, MDR and C, and at the load of 45% for WL and RC. The 1RM(BP) in WL was larger (P<0.05) than those recorded in HP, RC, MDR and C. In the bench press, average muscle power outputs in WL and HP were higher (P<0.05-0.001) than those in MDR, RC and C, and were maximized at a load of 30% of 1RM for WL and HP, and at 45% for RC, MDR and C. In addition, the velocities that elicited the maximal power in the lower extremities were lower (approximately 0.75 m.s(-1)) than those occurring in the upper extremities (approximately 1 m.s(-1)). The data suggest that the magnitude of the sport-related differences in strength and/or muscle power output may be explained in part by differences in muscle cross-sectional area, fibre type distribution and in the muscle mechanics of the upper and lower limbs as well as by training background. SN - 1439-6319 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12111288/Effects_of_long_term_training_specificity_on_maximal_strength_and_power_of_the_upper_and_lower_extremities_in_athletes_from_different_sports_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-002-0628-y DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -