IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGF-receptor-1 transcript and IGF-II protein expression in myostatin knockout mice tissues.Muscle Nerve. 2002 Jul; 26(1):55-63.MN
Semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry were performed to demonstrate whether a correlation exists between insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)-positive regulators of growth-and myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle growth. IGF-I, -II, and IGF-receptor-1 (IGF-R1) mRNA and IGF-II protein expressions were determined in control and myostatin knockout mice tissues. IGF-I gene expressions were similar between control and knockout mice tissues, whereas IGF-II mRNA levels were significantly higher in myostatin knockout mice kidney and soleus muscles than those of control mice (P <.01). IGF-R1 mRNA levels from control mice heart (P <.05) and kidney (P <.01) were significantly higher than in myostatin knockout mice, whereas levels were lower in pectoralis muscle of control mice than knockout mice (P <.01). The strongly IGF-II-positive cells in soleus muscle were more common in myostatin knockout mice and were seen in a few foci in control mice. IGF-II immunoreactivity in both control and myostatin knockout mice kidneys was localized to the epithelium of renal tubules and collecting ducts. Reciprocal changes in the expression of myostatin and IGF-II and IGF-R1 may underlie normal growth of skeletal muscle and other organs in mammals, and the changes in these tissues associated with disease.