Molecular and morphological phylogenetic analysis of an insular radiation in Pacific black flies (Simulium).Syst Biol. 2001 Feb; 50(1):18-38.SB
Ecological adaptation within islands may have figured prominently in the insular radiation of black flies (subgenus Inseliellum) in the Society Islands, French Polynesia. To aid in understanding the sequence of ecological shifts in this group, we have constructed a phylogeny by using morphology, the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, and the small ribosomal subunit (12S) gene. The strong influence of COI on the combined analysis tree was evident from its contribution to the partitioned Bremer support (62%). The net effect of including 12S was to reduce overall tree support. Different character sets resolved different portions of the combined analysis tree, with COI resolving recent lineages, 12S resolving basal relationships, and morphology supporting the monophyly of taxa having smaller larval feeding fans (oviceps group). The Partition Homogeneity and Kashino-Hasegawa tests indicated significant incongruence between morphological and mitochondrial data. The Templeton test revealed that morphology and the combined (COI + 12S) mitochondrial data were incongruent. This conflict stems primarily from disagreement over the monophyly of taxa having much smaller larval feeding fans. Either convergence in a subset of morphological characters, low phylogenetic signal among mitochondrial sequences, or lineage-sorting causing the mitochondrial data to track an incorrect evolutionary history may be responsible for these results.