8-(3-Chlorostyryl)caffeine may attenuate MPTP neurotoxicity through dual actions of monoamine oxidase inhibition and A2A receptor antagonism.J Biol Chem. 2002 Sep 27; 277(39):36040-4.JB
Caffeine and more specific antagonists of the adenosine A(2A) receptor recently have been found to be neuroprotective in the MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) model of Parkinson's disease. Here we show that 8-(3-chlorostyryl)caffeine (CSC), a specific A(2A) antagonist closely related to caffeine, also attenuates MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. Because the neurotoxicity of MPTP relies on its oxidative metabolism to the mitochondrial toxin MPP(+), we investigated the actions of CSC on striatal MPTP metabolism in vivo. CSC elevated striatal levels of MPTP but lowered levels of the oxidative intermediate MPDP(+) and of MPP(+), suggesting that CSC blocks the conversion of MPTP to MPDP(+) in vivo. In assessing the direct effects of CSC and A(2A) receptors on monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity, we found that CSC potently and specifically inhibited mouse brain mitochondrial MAO-B activity in vitro with a K(i) value of 100 nm, whereas caffeine and another relatively specific A(2A) antagonist produced little or no inhibition. The A(2A) receptor independence of MAO-B inhibition by CSC was further supported by the similarity of brain MAO activities derived from A(2A) receptor knockout and wild-type mice and was confirmed by demonstrating potent inhibition of A(2A) receptor knockout-derived MAO-B by CSC. Together, these data indicate that CSC possesses dual actions of MAO-B inhibition and A(2A) receptor antagonism, a unique combination suggesting a new class of compounds with the potential for enhanced neuroprotective properties.