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Myogenic regulatory factors and the specification of muscle progenitors in vertebrate embryos.
Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2002; 18:747-83.AR

Abstract

Embryological and genetic studies of mouse, bird, zebrafish, and frog embryos are providing new insights into the regulatory functions of the myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD, Myf5, Myogenin, and MRF4, and the transcriptional and signaling mechanisms that control their expression during the specification and differentiation of muscle progenitors. Myf5 and MyoD genes have genetically redundant, but developmentally distinct regulatory functions in the specification and the differentiation of somite and head muscle progenitor lineages. Myogenin and MRF4 have later functions in muscle differentiation, and Pax and Hox genes coordinate the migration and specification of somite progenitors at sites of hypaxial and limb muscle formation in the embryo body. Transcription enhancers that control Myf5 and MyoD activation in muscle progenitors and maintain their expression during muscle differentiation have been identified by transgenic analysis. In epaxial, hypaxial, limb, and head muscle progenitors, Myf5 is controlled by lineage-specific transcription enhancers, providing evidence that multiple mechanisms control progenitor specification at different sites of myogenesis in the embryo. Developmental signaling ligands and their signal transduction effectors function both interactively and independently to control Myf5 and MyoD activation in muscle progenitor lineages, likely through direct regulation of their transcription enhancers. Future investigations of the signaling and transcriptional mechanisms that control Myf5 and MyoD in the muscle progenitor lineages of different vertebrate embryos can be expected to provide a detailed understanding of the developmental and evolutionary mechanisms for anatomical muscles formation in vertebrates. This knowledge will be a foundation for development of stem cell therapies to repair diseased and damaged muscles.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biology, University of York, United Kingdom.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

12142270

Citation

Pownall, Mary Elizabeth, et al. "Myogenic Regulatory Factors and the Specification of Muscle Progenitors in Vertebrate Embryos." Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology, vol. 18, 2002, pp. 747-83.
Pownall ME, Gustafsson MK, Emerson CP. Myogenic regulatory factors and the specification of muscle progenitors in vertebrate embryos. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2002;18:747-83.
Pownall, M. E., Gustafsson, M. K., & Emerson, C. P. (2002). Myogenic regulatory factors and the specification of muscle progenitors in vertebrate embryos. Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology, 18, 747-83.
Pownall ME, Gustafsson MK, Emerson CP. Myogenic Regulatory Factors and the Specification of Muscle Progenitors in Vertebrate Embryos. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2002;18:747-83. PubMed PMID: 12142270.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Myogenic regulatory factors and the specification of muscle progenitors in vertebrate embryos. AU - Pownall,Mary Elizabeth, AU - Gustafsson,Marcus K, AU - Emerson,Charles P,Jr Y1 - 2002/04/02/ PY - 2002/7/27/pubmed PY - 2003/5/31/medline PY - 2002/7/27/entrez SP - 747 EP - 83 JF - Annual review of cell and developmental biology JO - Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol VL - 18 N2 - Embryological and genetic studies of mouse, bird, zebrafish, and frog embryos are providing new insights into the regulatory functions of the myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD, Myf5, Myogenin, and MRF4, and the transcriptional and signaling mechanisms that control their expression during the specification and differentiation of muscle progenitors. Myf5 and MyoD genes have genetically redundant, but developmentally distinct regulatory functions in the specification and the differentiation of somite and head muscle progenitor lineages. Myogenin and MRF4 have later functions in muscle differentiation, and Pax and Hox genes coordinate the migration and specification of somite progenitors at sites of hypaxial and limb muscle formation in the embryo body. Transcription enhancers that control Myf5 and MyoD activation in muscle progenitors and maintain their expression during muscle differentiation have been identified by transgenic analysis. In epaxial, hypaxial, limb, and head muscle progenitors, Myf5 is controlled by lineage-specific transcription enhancers, providing evidence that multiple mechanisms control progenitor specification at different sites of myogenesis in the embryo. Developmental signaling ligands and their signal transduction effectors function both interactively and independently to control Myf5 and MyoD activation in muscle progenitor lineages, likely through direct regulation of their transcription enhancers. Future investigations of the signaling and transcriptional mechanisms that control Myf5 and MyoD in the muscle progenitor lineages of different vertebrate embryos can be expected to provide a detailed understanding of the developmental and evolutionary mechanisms for anatomical muscles formation in vertebrates. This knowledge will be a foundation for development of stem cell therapies to repair diseased and damaged muscles. SN - 1081-0706 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12142270/Myogenic_regulatory_factors_and_the_specification_of_muscle_progenitors_in_vertebrate_embryos_ L2 - https://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev.cellbio.18.012502.105758?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -