Involvement of superoxide in excitotoxicity and DNA fragmentation in striatal vulnerability in mice after treatment with the mitochondrial toxin, 3-nitropropionic acid.J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2002 Jul; 22(7):798-809.JC
Oxidative stress and excitotoxicity have been implicated in selective striatal vulnerability caused by the mitochondrial toxin, 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP), which may simulate Huntington's disease in animals and humans. The detailed mechanism of the role of superoxide in striatal vulnerability induced by 3-NP is still unknown. The authors investigated oxidative cellular injury and DNA fragmentation after systemic 3-NP injection in wild-type (Wt) mice and mutant mice with a deficiency in manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD; Sod2 -/+). Furthermore, they investigated the effects of decortication after 3-NP treatment in Sod2 -/+ mice, and copper/zinc SOD (CuZnSOD) treatment in recently developed Sod2 -/+ mice that overexpress CuZnSOD (SOD1 +/- / Sod2 -/+ mice). Oxidized hydroethidine, 8-hydroxyguanosine immunoreactivity, and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity were increased in the Sod2 -/+ mice compared with the Wt mice after 3-NP treatment (P < 0.001). Decortication completely abolished oxidative striatal damage after 3-NP treatment in the Sod2 -/+ mice. Increased CuZnSOD attenuated DNA fragmentation and striatal lesion volume after 3-NP treatment in the Sod2 -/+ mice (P < 0.001). These data suggest that production of superoxide may be a critical step to excitotoxicity and subsequent DNA fragmentation in selective striatal vulnerability after 3-NP treatment.