Prevalence and severity of periodontal disease at mandibular molar teeth in smokers with regular oral hygiene habits.J Periodontol. 2002 Jul; 73(7):735-40.JP
Smoking appears to be detrimental to health because it has been associated with several diseases including cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Smoking also appears to be a major environmental factor associated with periodontal disease progression. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of periodontal destruction as influenced by smoking in a Thai population.
Gingival health and periodontal conditions at mandibular molar furcation sites in 120 Thai dental patients (60 smokers and 60 never-smokers, age range 31 to 60 years) with generally high oral hygiene standards and regular dental care habits were evaluated.
Smokers exhibited more frequent and severe mandibular molar periodontal destruction than never-smokers. The prevalence and severity of gingival recession, periodontal pocket formation, clinical attachment loss, furcation involvement, and tooth mobility were significantly increased in smokers compared to never-smokers. Seventy-three percent of the smokers exhibited furcation involvement in contrast to only 20% of the never-smokers.
The results of this study suggest that smoking appears to be a major environmental factor associated with accelerated periodontal destruction in adult smokers with generally high oral hygiene standards and regular dental care habits in a Thai population.