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Continuous glucose monitoring: an overview of today's technologies and their clinical applications.

Abstract

The first glucose sensors that allow continuous glucose monitoring are now available. It is important that physicians understand the special clinical and technical aspects that are key to successful implementation of these sensors--and of other sensors being under clinical development--into the daily practice of patients with diabetes. One important question is whether under all circumstances changes in blood glucose are paralleled by glucose changes in the interstitial fluid, in terms of both absolute values and time. Only if this is the case can measuring glucose in the interstitial fluid be a reliable substitute for measuring blood glucose. Usually, glucose sensor readings of interstitial fluid are transformed by means of a calibration process, so that the readings show actual blood glucose levels and not the interstitial glucose levels. If the calibration factor is inaccurately estimated, this error would be perpetuated with potential clinical implications. Patients with diabetes have to learn the proper use of the individual glucose sensor system, including its calibration and quality control. They also have to be informed about the problems and limitations of each sensor. Continuous monitoring should supply the patients with all information required to optimise their insulin therapy. The relatively high costs of glucose sensor systems should be viewed in the context of the potential optimisation of metabolic control, which should ultimately reduce the costs for the treatment of late complications of diabetes. These reduced costs would clearly far outweigh the costs of self-monitoring and self-control. Clinical trials are necessary to clearly demonstrate the long-term benefits of continuous glucose monitoring. The development of glucose sensors has now reached a stage at which it is important to address such questions appropriately.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Profil Institute for Metabolic Research GmbH, Neuss, Germany.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

12166611

Citation

Heinemann, Lutz, and Theodor Koschinsky. "Continuous Glucose Monitoring: an Overview of Today's Technologies and Their Clinical Applications." International Journal of Clinical Practice. Supplement, 2002, pp. 75-9.
Heinemann L, Koschinsky T. Continuous glucose monitoring: an overview of today's technologies and their clinical applications. Int J Clin Pract Suppl. 2002.
Heinemann, L., & Koschinsky, T. (2002). Continuous glucose monitoring: an overview of today's technologies and their clinical applications. International Journal of Clinical Practice. Supplement, (129), 75-9.
Heinemann L, Koschinsky T. Continuous Glucose Monitoring: an Overview of Today's Technologies and Their Clinical Applications. Int J Clin Pract Suppl. 2002;(129)75-9. PubMed PMID: 12166611.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Continuous glucose monitoring: an overview of today's technologies and their clinical applications. AU - Heinemann,Lutz, AU - Koschinsky,Theodor, PY - 2002/8/9/pubmed PY - 2003/1/31/medline PY - 2002/8/9/entrez SP - 75 EP - 9 JF - International journal of clinical practice. Supplement JO - Int J Clin Pract Suppl IS - 129 N2 - The first glucose sensors that allow continuous glucose monitoring are now available. It is important that physicians understand the special clinical and technical aspects that are key to successful implementation of these sensors--and of other sensors being under clinical development--into the daily practice of patients with diabetes. One important question is whether under all circumstances changes in blood glucose are paralleled by glucose changes in the interstitial fluid, in terms of both absolute values and time. Only if this is the case can measuring glucose in the interstitial fluid be a reliable substitute for measuring blood glucose. Usually, glucose sensor readings of interstitial fluid are transformed by means of a calibration process, so that the readings show actual blood glucose levels and not the interstitial glucose levels. If the calibration factor is inaccurately estimated, this error would be perpetuated with potential clinical implications. Patients with diabetes have to learn the proper use of the individual glucose sensor system, including its calibration and quality control. They also have to be informed about the problems and limitations of each sensor. Continuous monitoring should supply the patients with all information required to optimise their insulin therapy. The relatively high costs of glucose sensor systems should be viewed in the context of the potential optimisation of metabolic control, which should ultimately reduce the costs for the treatment of late complications of diabetes. These reduced costs would clearly far outweigh the costs of self-monitoring and self-control. Clinical trials are necessary to clearly demonstrate the long-term benefits of continuous glucose monitoring. The development of glucose sensors has now reached a stage at which it is important to address such questions appropriately. SN - 1368-504X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12166611/Continuous_glucose_monitoring:_an_overview_of_today's_technologies_and_their_clinical_applications_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/bloodsugar.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -