A prospective study of bone mass and body composition in female adolescent gymnasts.J Pediatr. 2002 Aug; 141(2):211-6.JPed
To examine changes in bone and body composition of adolescent female artistic gymnasts (GYM; n = 7), level 5+, compared with nongymnast controls (CON; n = 10) over 3 years.
Areal bone mineral density (aBMD; g/cm(2)), bone mineral content (BMC; g) and bone area (cm(2)), of the total body (TB), total proximal femur (TPF), trochanter (Tr), femoral neck, lumbar spine (LS), and distal radius were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fat-free soft tissue mass (FFST; g), fat mass (g), and percent body fat (%FAT) were also assessed.
No initial differences in height or weight between GYM and CON were observed, and both groups demonstrated parallel increases in these parameters over time (P <.05; h(2) >or=0.15). At baseline, GYM possessed significantly lower %FAT and higher aBMD at all sites (except TB; P <.05; h(2) >or=0.15). Over 3 years, GYM increased more than CON (P <.05; eta (2) >or=0.15) in TB, Tr, and TPF aBMD, TB and LS BMC, and FFST.
Female adolescents participating in competitive artistic gymnastics training over 3 years have enhanced rates of aBMD, BMC and FFST accrual.