Flavor release and perception of flavored whey protein gels: perception is determined by texture rather than by release.J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Aug 28; 50(18):5149-55.JA
Five whey protein gels, with different gel hardnesses and waterholding capacities, were flavored with ethylbutyrate or diacetyl and evaluated by a 10-person panel to study the relation between the gel structure and the sensory perception, as well as the nosespace flavor concentration during eating. The sensory perception of the flavor compounds was measured by the time-intensity method, while simultaneously the nosespace flavor concentration was monitored by the MS-Nose. The nosespace flavor concentration was found to be independent of the gel hardness or waterholding capacity. However, significant changes in flavor intensity between the gels were perceived by the majority of the panelists, despite the fact that the panelists were instructed to focus only on flavor perception and to not take texture into account. From these observations it is concluded that the texture of gels determines perception of flavor intensity rather than the in-nose flavor concentration.