Leptin and metabolic syndrome in obese and non-obese children.Horm Metab Res. 2002 Jul; 34(7):394-9.HM
Metabolic syndrome is characterized by a clustering of metabolic abnormalities: insulin resistance - hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia (high triglycerides and low HDL - cholesterol serum concentrations), impaired glucose tolerance and/or type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. The aim of this study was to analyse the role of different variables of metabolic syndrome, including leptin, in 74 non-obese children and 68 children with non-syndromal obesity. As metabolic syndrome variables, we have included body mass index, waist circumference, trunk-to-total skinfolds (%), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, glucose, uric acid, fasting insulin, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Factor analysis showed 4 factors in each group. In non-obese children, waist circumference, BMI, fasting insulin, triglycerides, trunk-to-total skinfolds (%), leptin and uric acid loaded positively on factor 1, and HDL-C loaded negatively on this factor; systolic and diastolic blood pressure had high positive loadings in factor 2; HDL-C and leptin showed positive loadings and triglycerides and uric acid, negative loadings in factor 3; and, finally, glucose and insulin showed positive loadings in factor 4. These four factors explained 72.16 % of the total variance in the non-obese group. In obese children, BMI, waist circumference, leptin, diastolic blood pressure and systolic blood pressure loaded positively on factor 1; diastolic blood pressure, trunk-to-total skinfolds (%), uric acid and systolic blood pressure showed high positive loadings in factor 2; fasting insulin, glucose and triglycerides showed positive loadings in factor 3; and, finally, triglycerides showed positive loadings and HDL-C negative loadings in factor 4. These four factors explained 74.18 % of the total variance in the obese group. Our results point to a different homeostatic control of metabolic syndrome characteristics in obese and non-obese children. Leptin seems to play a key underlying role in metabolic syndrome, especially in the obese group.