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Intake of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin d and risk of breast cancer.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Laboratory data suggest that calcium and vitamin D, found at high levels in dairy products, might reduce breast carcinogenesis. However, epidemiologic studies regarding dairy products and breast cancer have yielded inconsistent results. We examined data from a large, long-term cohort study to evaluate whether high intake of dairy products, calcium, or vitamin D is associated with reduced risk of breast cancer.

METHODS

We followed 88 691 women in the Nurses' Health Study cohort from the date of return of their food-frequency questionnaire in 1980 until May 31, 1996. Dietary information was collected in 1980 and updated in 1984, 1986, 1990, and 1994. We identified 3482 women (premenopausal = 827, postmenopausal = 2345, and uncertain menopausal status = 310) with incident invasive breast cancer. We used pooled logistic regression to estimate multivariable relative risks (RRs) using 2-year time increments. The RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each category of intake compared with the lowest intake group. All statistical tests were two-sided.

RESULTS

Intakes of dairy products, calcium, or vitamin D were not statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. In premenopausal women, however, consumption of dairy products, especially of low-fat dairy foods and skim/low-fat milk, was inversely associated with risk of breast cancer. The multivariable RRs comparing highest (>1 serving/day) and lowest (<or=3 servings/month) intake categories were 0.68 (95% CI = 0.55 to 0.86) for low-fat dairy foods and 0.72 (95% CI = 0.56 to 0.91) for skim/low-fat milk. Dairy calcium (>800 mg/day versus <or=200 mg/day; RR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.98), total vitamin D (>500 IU/day versus <or=150 IU/day; RR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.55 to 0.94), and lactose (quintile 5 versus quintile 1; RR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.86] also had inverse associations with premenopausal breast cancer risk. By taking into account supplemental calcium and vitamin D intake, we found that association with calcium was due mainly to dairy sources whereas the association with vitamin D may be independent of dairy intake.

CONCLUSIONS

We found no association between intake of dairy products and breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Among premenopausal women, high intake of low-fat dairy foods, especially skim/low-fat milk, was associated with reduced risk of breast cancer. Similar inverse associations were seen with components (calcium and vitamin D) of dairy foods, but their independent associations with breast cancer are difficult to distinguish.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    , , , ,

    Source

    Journal of the National Cancer Institute 94:17 2002 Sep 04 pg 1301-11

    MeSH

    Breast Neoplasms
    Calcium, Dietary
    Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
    Dairy Products
    Female
    Health Personnel
    Humans
    Incidence
    Menopause
    Middle Aged
    Prospective Studies
    Risk Factors
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    United States
    Vitamin D

    Pub Type(s)

    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    12208895

    Citation

    Shin, Myung-Hee, et al. "Intake of Dairy Products, Calcium, and Vitamin D and Risk of Breast Cancer." Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 94, no. 17, 2002, pp. 1301-11.
    Shin MH, Holmes MD, Hankinson SE, et al. Intake of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin d and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94(17):1301-11.
    Shin, M. H., Holmes, M. D., Hankinson, S. E., Wu, K., Colditz, G. A., & Willett, W. C. (2002). Intake of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin d and risk of breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 94(17), pp. 1301-11.
    Shin MH, et al. Intake of Dairy Products, Calcium, and Vitamin D and Risk of Breast Cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 Sep 4;94(17):1301-11. PubMed PMID: 12208895.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Intake of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin d and risk of breast cancer. AU - Shin,Myung-Hee, AU - Holmes,Michelle D, AU - Hankinson,Susan E, AU - Wu,Kana, AU - Colditz,Graham A, AU - Willett,Walter C, PY - 2002/9/5/pubmed PY - 2002/10/2/medline PY - 2002/9/5/entrez SP - 1301 EP - 11 JF - Journal of the National Cancer Institute JO - J. Natl. Cancer Inst. VL - 94 IS - 17 N2 - BACKGROUND: Laboratory data suggest that calcium and vitamin D, found at high levels in dairy products, might reduce breast carcinogenesis. However, epidemiologic studies regarding dairy products and breast cancer have yielded inconsistent results. We examined data from a large, long-term cohort study to evaluate whether high intake of dairy products, calcium, or vitamin D is associated with reduced risk of breast cancer. METHODS: We followed 88 691 women in the Nurses' Health Study cohort from the date of return of their food-frequency questionnaire in 1980 until May 31, 1996. Dietary information was collected in 1980 and updated in 1984, 1986, 1990, and 1994. We identified 3482 women (premenopausal = 827, postmenopausal = 2345, and uncertain menopausal status = 310) with incident invasive breast cancer. We used pooled logistic regression to estimate multivariable relative risks (RRs) using 2-year time increments. The RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each category of intake compared with the lowest intake group. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Intakes of dairy products, calcium, or vitamin D were not statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. In premenopausal women, however, consumption of dairy products, especially of low-fat dairy foods and skim/low-fat milk, was inversely associated with risk of breast cancer. The multivariable RRs comparing highest (>1 serving/day) and lowest (<or=3 servings/month) intake categories were 0.68 (95% CI = 0.55 to 0.86) for low-fat dairy foods and 0.72 (95% CI = 0.56 to 0.91) for skim/low-fat milk. Dairy calcium (>800 mg/day versus <or=200 mg/day; RR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.98), total vitamin D (>500 IU/day versus <or=150 IU/day; RR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.55 to 0.94), and lactose (quintile 5 versus quintile 1; RR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.86] also had inverse associations with premenopausal breast cancer risk. By taking into account supplemental calcium and vitamin D intake, we found that association with calcium was due mainly to dairy sources whereas the association with vitamin D may be independent of dairy intake. CONCLUSIONS: We found no association between intake of dairy products and breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Among premenopausal women, high intake of low-fat dairy foods, especially skim/low-fat milk, was associated with reduced risk of breast cancer. Similar inverse associations were seen with components (calcium and vitamin D) of dairy foods, but their independent associations with breast cancer are difficult to distinguish. SN - 0027-8874 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12208895/Intake_of_dairy_products_calcium_and_vitamin_d_and_risk_of_breast_cancer_ L2 - http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&amp;PAGE=linkout&amp;SEARCH=12208895.ui DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -