Glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition increases HLA-DR expression on monocytes of trauma patients.J Nutr 2002; 132(9):2580-6JN
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of glutamine-(Gln)-enriched enteral nutrition (EN) on human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR and FcgammaR1/CD64 expression on monocytes and plasma glutamine concentrations in multi-trauma patients. HLA-DR expression on monocytes is crucial in the presentation of foreign antigen to the immune system and is severely reduced in trauma patients. In vitro monocyte HLA-DR and FcgammaRI/CD64 expression is dependent on glutamine availability. To study the effect of glutamine supplemented enteral nutrition on HLA-DR and FcgammaRI/CD64 expression on CD14(+) monocytes, 55 multi-trauma patients were studied in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. Trauma patients received either a Gln-enriched EN (glutamine group, n = 28) or an isocaloric, isonitrogenous control EN (control group, n = 27) and were compared with a group of age-matched healthy volunteers (healthy volunteers, n = 53). On d 1, 5, 9 and 14 after trauma, expressions of HLA-DR and FcgammaRI/CD64 were determined on CD14(+) monocytes using FACS analysis. Plasma glutamine levels were measured using HPLC. Plasma glutamine was lower in both trauma patient groups compared with healthy volunteers and from d 3 to d 5; glutamine was higher in the glutamine group than in the control group. On d 1, HLA-DR expression was much lower in both trauma patient groups than in healthy volunteers. HLA-DR expression was greater on d 5, 9 and 14 in the glutamine group than in the control group. FcgammaRI/CD64 expression on monocytes of trauma patients was not different than the expression of healthy volunteers. This study showed that glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition was associated with a higher HLA-DR expression on CD14(+) monocytes of trauma patients. No difference in monocyte FcgammaRI/CD64 expression was detected between patients that received the two enteral diets and between trauma patients and the healthy volunteers. Increased HLA-DR expression may improve cellular immune function and may be involved in the beneficial effect of glutamine on the occurrence of infections in trauma patients.