Ty1 /copia- and Ty3 /gypsy-like DNA sequences in Helianthus species.Chromosoma. 2002 Sep; 111(3):192-200.C
Two repeated DNA sequences isolated from a partial genomic DNA library of Helianthus annuus, p HaS13 and p HaS211, were shown to represent portions of the int gene of a Ty3 /gypsy retroelement and of the RNase-Hgene of a Ty1 /copia retroelement, respectively. Southern blotting patterns obtained by hybridizing the two probes to BglII- or DraI-digested genomic DNA from different Helianthus species showed p HaS13 and p HaS211 were parts of dispersed repeats at least 8 and 7 kb in length, respectively, that were conserved in all species studied. Comparable hybridization patterns were obtained in all species with p HaS13. By contrast, the patterns obtained by hybridizing p HaS211 clearly differentiated annual species from perennials. The frequencies of p HaS13- and p HaS211-related sequences in different species were 4.3x10(4)-1.3x10(5) copies and 9.9x10(2)-8.1x10(3) copies per picogram of DNA, respectively. The frequency of p HaS13-related sequences varied widely within annual species, while no significant difference was observed among perennial species. Conversely, the frequency variation of p HaS211-related sequences was as large within annual species as within perennials. Sequences of both families were found to be dispersed along the length of all chromosomes in all species studied. However, Ty3 /gypsy-like sequences were localized preferentially at the centromeric regions, whereas Ty1/ copia-like sequences were less represented or absent around the centromeres and plentiful at the chromosome ends. These findings suggest that the two sequence families played a role in Helianthusgenome evolution and species divergence, evolved independently in the same genomic backgrounds and in annual or perennial species, and acquired different possible functions in the host genomes.