Creatine plays a direct role as a protein modifier in the formation of a novel advanced glycation end product.J Biochem 2002; 132(4):543-50JB
Pentosidine, a cross-link structure between lysine and arginine residues, is one of the major advanced glycation end products (AGE). It is formed by the reaction of ribose with lysine and arginine. The pentosidine concentration produced by in vitro incubation of plasma obtained from uremic patients was reported to be higher than in normal plasma, indicating that uremic plasma contains an enhancer(s) for pentosidine formation [Miyata, T., Ueda, Y., Yamada, Y., Izuhara, Y., Wada, T., Jadoul, M., Saito, A., Kurokawa, K., and Strihou, C.Y. (1998) J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 9, 2349-2356]. Since our preliminary study using a monoclonal anti-pentosidine antibody identified creatine as the most effective enhancer, the purpose of the present study was to clarify the mechanism by which creatine contributes to pentosidine formation. Lysine was incubated with ribose in the presence of creatine and analyzed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. A novel fluorescent peak (lambda(ex/em) = 335/385 nm) was detected at 8 min, under conditions at which the authentic pentosidine (lysine was incubated with ribose in the presence of arginine under identical conditions) eluted at 12 min. Structural analyses of this compound revealed a pentosidine-like structure in which the arginine residue was replaced by creatine. This novel AGE-structure, named here creatine-derived pentosidine (C-pentosidine), was detected in the plasma of patients on hemodialysis. These results indicate that creatine increases the formation of C-pentosidine but not authentic pentosidine. This study indicates that creatine plays a direct role as a protein modifier in C-pentosidine formation, although the clinical significance of C-pentosidine is still unknown.