Cardiac malformations associated with the Holt-Oram syndrome--report on a family and review of the literature.Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2002 Oct; 50(5):312-4.TC
The Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) is characterized by mild-to-severe congenital cardiac defects and skeletal abnormalities of the upper limb. The most common cardiac disorder is an ostium secundum atrial septal defect (ASD), followed by ventricular septal defect (VSD) and ostium primum ASD. Electrocardiographic abnormalities, such as various degrees of atrioventricular block, have also been reported. In addition, hypoplastic peripheral vessels of the upper limbs have been observed. Here, we will report about a family with three sons having HOS, and we will detail the cardiac spectrum of HOS as reported in the literature.