Ethnicity and skeletal Class III morphology: a pubertal growth analysis using thin-plate spline analysis.Int J Adult Orthodon Orthognath Surg. 2001 Winter; 16(4):243-54.IJ
A longitudinal retrospective study using thin-plate spline analysis was used to investigate skeletal Class III etiology in Japanese female adolescents. Headfilms of 40 subjects were chosen from the archives of the Orthodontic department at Niigata University Dental Hospital, and were traced at IIIB and IVA Hellman dental ages. Twenty-eight homologous landmarks, representing hard and soft tissue, were digitized. These were used to reproduce a consensus for the profilogram, craniomaxillary complex, mandible, and soft tissue for each age and skeletal group. Generalized least-square analysis revealed a significant shape difference between age-matched groups (P < .001), except for the craniomaxillary complex at stage IVA. T test for size analysis showed unequivocally increased mandibular size in skeletal Class III, which directly increased the craniofacial size collectively (P < .05). A deviant profilogram showed anisotropy displaying as maxillary deficiency, acute cranial base, and obtuse gonial angle in addition to increased facial height at stage IIIB. Maxillary retrusion decreased while the mandible showed excessive incremental growth and a forward position caused by deficient orthocephalization at stage IVA. Craniomaxillary complex total spline and partial warps (PW)3 and 2 showed a maxillary retrusion at stage IIIB opposite an acute cranial base at stage IVA. Mandibular total spline and PW4, 5 showed changes affecting most landmarks and their spatial interrelationship, especially a stretch along the articulare-pogonion axis. In soft tissue analysis, PW8 showed large and local changes which paralleled the underlying hard tissue components. Allometry of the mandible and anisotropy of the cranial base, the maxilla, and the mandible asserted the complexity of craniofacial growth and the difficulty of predicting its outcome.