Phylogenetic relationships within the Phyllopoda (Crustacea, Branchiopoda) based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers.Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2002 Nov; 25(2):229-44.MP
For several decades the relationships within the Branchiopoda (Anostraca + Phyllopoda) have been a matter of controversy. Interpretations of plesiomorphic or apomorphic character states are a difficult venture, in particular in the Phyllopoda. We explore the relationships within the Phyllopoda at the level of nucleotid comparisons of the two genes 12S rDNA (mitochondrial) and EF1alpha (nuclear), and at a higher molecular level based on introns found in the gene EF1alpha. Within the Phyllopoda our explorations show further evidence for a non-monophyletic Conchostraca (Spinicaudata + Cyclestherida + Laevicaudata). The monotypic Cyclestherida is more closely related to the Cladocera, both together forming the Cladoceromorpha. The Spinicaudata (Leptestheriidae, Limnadiidae, and Cyzicidae) is well supported. Spinicaudata and Cladoceromorpha form a monophylum. The position of the Laevicaudata remains unclear but we find neither support for a sister group relationship to the Spinicaudata nor for a close relationship of Laevicaudata and Cladocera. Within the Cladocera, we favour the Gymnomera concept with the monotypic Haplopoda being the sister group to the monophyletic Onychopoda. The Ctenopoda seems to be the sister group to the Gymnomera, which contradicts the common view of a more basal position of the Ctenopoda.