Effect of milk base and starter culture on acidification, texture, and probiotic cell counts in fermented milk processing.J Dairy Sci. 2002 Oct; 85(10):2479-88.JD
In the present work, the compared effect of milk base and starter culture on acidification, texture, growth, and stability of probiotic bacteria in fermented milk processing, was studied. Two strains of probiotic bacteria were used, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA5 and L. rhamnosus LR35, with two starter cultures. One starter culture consisted only of Streptococcus thermophilus ST7 (single starter culture); the other was a yogurt mixed culture with S. thermophilus ST7 and L. bulgaricus LB12 (mixed starter culture). For the milk base preparation, four commercial dairy ingredients were tested (two milk protein concentrates and two casein hydrolysates). The resulting fermented milks were compared to those obtained with control milk (without enrichment) and milk added with skim milk powder. The performance of the two probiotic strains were opposite. L. acidophilus LA5 grew well on milk but showed a poor stability during storage. L. rhamnosus LR35 grew weakly on milk but was remarkably stable during storage. With the strains tested in this study, the use of the single starter culture and the addition of casein hydrolysate gave the best probiotic cell counts. The fermentation time was of about 11 h, and the probiotic level after five weeks of storage was greater than 106 cfu/ml for L. acidophilus LA5 and 10(7) cfu/ml for L. rhamnosus LR35. However, an optimization of the level of casein hydrolysate added to milk base has to be done, in order to improve texture and flavor when using this dairy ingredient.