[Psychosomatic medicine--historical models and current theories].Wien Med Wochenschr. 2002; 152(19-20):488-94.WM
The term psychosomatic medicine has two meanings: first it represents a specific scientific approach in medicine that encompasses methodologies from natural sciences as well as social and human sciences. Second it denotes a clinical speciality that aims at applying this complex scientific background to diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In this review partly contrasting concepts in medicine are outlined in order to discuss current psychosomatic theories and models. This reflection based on philosophy of science shows that the heterogeneity of the concepts in medicine expresses differences in the predominance of phenomenologic, dialectic, empiric-analytic and hermeneutic methodology. In psychosomatic medicine a critical evaluation and integration of the applied methodologies is regarded as scientific prerequisite and ethical demand. These hypotheses are also shared by medical anthropology (v. Weizsäcker), theoretical pathology (Doerr and Schipperges), and by the concepts of Uexküll (Situationskreis) and Hahn (Methodenkreis); they also serve as the fundamental basis for this article.