Prediagnostic toenail selenium and risk of bladder cancer.Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 Nov; 11(11):1292-7.CE
The association between several cancers and selenium status has been investigated in epidemiological studies. However, few results concerning bladder cancer have been reported thus far. The association between toenail selenium status and subsequent bladder cancer incidence was investigated in a prospective cohort study among 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years at baseline (September 1986). The cohort members completed a questionnaire on risk factors for cancer and provided toenail clippings for determination of baseline selenium status. Follow-up for incident cancer was established by record linkage to cancer registries until December 1992. The multivariable case-cohort analysis was based on 431 bladder cancer cases and 2,459 subcohort members, for whom toenail selenium levels were available. The age-, sex- and smoking-adjusted rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) for increasing quintiles of toenail selenium were 1.00 (reference), 1.09 (0.80-1.48), 0.55 (0.38-0.79), 0.63 (0.43-0.91), and 0.67 (0.46-0.97), respectively (P-trend < 0.01). Analyses with selenium as a continuous variable supported these findings. An inverse association between toenail selenium and bladder cancer risk was most pronounced among ex-smokers (P-trend < 0.01); was similar for subjects with high versus low intakes of beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E; and was mainly confined to invasive transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder, irrespective of tumor morphology. We conclude that the evidence is in favor of an inverse association between selenium and bladder cancer risk.