Involvement of peptide histidine isoleucine in non-adrenergic non-cholinergic relaxation of the rat gastric fundus induced by high-frequency neuronal firing.Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2002 Dec; 366(6):578-86.NS
The role of peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI) as a neurotransmitter of the inhibitory motor neurones, the physiological role of PHI and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxation and the relative amounts of VIP- and PHI-like immunoreactivity (LI) co-released by neuronal activation were investigated in the rat gastric fundus. Longitudinal muscle strips from the rat gastric fundus precontracted by the thromboxane receptor agonist U46619 (0.1 micro M) were studied in organ baths under conditions of muscarinic receptor blockade by atropine (1 micro M) and adrenergic neurone blockade by guanethidine (5 micro M) ("NANC conditions"). Concentration-response curves were plotted for both amplitude and area under the curve (AUC) of the relaxant responses induced by VIP (0.3 nM-0.3 micro M), PHI (0.3 nM-1 micro M) and peptide histidine valine [PHV(1-42); 0.3 nM-1 micro M]. All three peptides were more potent in the curve based on amplitude than in that based on the AUC of relaxation. In addition, VIP was 5.3 and 7 times more potent than PHI and PHV(1-42), respectively, in producing relaxation expressed as amplitude, and 2.7 and 2.8 times, respectively, in producing relaxation expressed as AUC. PHI and PHV(1-42) behaved as partial agonists with respect to VIP in producing relaxation expressed as AUC. Electrical field stimulation (EFS; 120 mA, 1 ms, 4-32 Hz, pulse trains of 2 min) evoked frequency-dependent relaxant responses. Alpha-chymotrypsin (1 u/ml or 3 u/ml), an anti-VIP serum (1:100 or 1:50) and an anti-PHI serum (1:25), slightly reduced the amplitude, but greatly inhibited the AUC of the NANC relaxation induced by EFS (13 Hz) [approximately 72%, 47% and 28% less than that seen in time controls or with normal rabbit serum (1:100 or 1:25), respectively]. EFS (8-32 Hz) caused significant, frequency-dependent increases in the outflow of VIP- and PHI-LI from the strips. The EFS-induced release of VIP-LI was approximately 20% of the PHI-LI release. These findings indicate that PHI is involved in EFS-induced NANC relaxation of the rat gastric fundus, the major physiological role of VIP and PHI is the maintenance of smooth muscle relaxation and VIP is co-released in equimolar amounts mainly with PHI.