Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple juice. 1. Effect of existing production methods.J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Dec 04; 50(25):7211-9.JA
Apples are an important source of flavonoids in the human diet. The effect of processing apples into juice on polyphenolic antioxidant content and activity is described. Raw juice obtained from Jonagold apples by pulping and straight pressing or after pulp enzyming had an antioxidant activity that was only 10 and 3%, respectively, of the activity of the fresh apples. The levels of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid in the juice were reduced to between 50% (chlorogenic acid) and 3% (catechins). Most of the antioxidants were retained in the pomace rather than being transferred into the juice. Apparently, most of the antioxidant compounds are absorbed to the solid matter of the pomace. In apple juice, 45% of the total measured antioxidant activity could be ascribed to the analyzed antioxidants. For three apple cultivars tested (Elstar, Golden Delicious, and Jonagold), the processing methods had similar effects. The results indicate that processing can have a major impact on the bioactivity of products.