Interleukin 17, a nitric oxide-producing cytokine with a peroxynitrite-independent inhibitory effect on proteoglycan synthesis.J Rheumatol. 2002 Dec; 29(12):2602-10.JR
To compare the potency of 2 cytokines, interleukin 17 (IL-17) and IL-1beta, on rat cartilage proteoglycan synthesis with special attention to nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite formation.
Chondrocytes in alginate beads were stimulated with human recombinant (rh) IL-17 (0.03 to 300.0 ng/ml) and/or rhIL-1beta (0.25 to 25.0 ng/ml) in the presence or not of L-NMMA or CuDips. Alternatively, rats were injected with either IL-17 (10.0 micro g) or IL-1beta (1.0 micro g) into each knee joint. NO concentrations were determined by a spectrofluorimetric assay, proteoglycan synthesis by 35SO4-2 incorporation, peroxynitrite generation by immunostaining for 3-nitrotyrosine, and IL-1beta mRNA expression by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
IL-17 inhibited proteoglycan synthesis and increased NO production, both in vitro and in vivo, without inducing expression of IL-1beta mRNA in cartilage. Additive effects were observed when IL-17 was combined with low concentrations of IL-1. Surprisingly, a similar NO synthesis between IL-1 and IL-17 led to a less suppressive effect of IL-17 on cartilage anabolism than with IL-1. Both in vitro and in vivo, peroxynitrite formation was extensive with IL-1beta, but negligible or nonexistent with IL-17. L-NMMA and CuDips completely corrected the suppressive effect of IL-1beta on proteoglycan synthesis, unlike with IL-17.
These data showed that NO is weakly involved in the IL-17 mediated inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis in rat. NO overload may not be predictive of any inhibitory effect on cartilage anabolism, but instead superoxide is a key regulator of NO contribution to chondrocyte dysfunction. Since IL-17 is a NO-producing cytokine with additive effects when combined with IL-1, it may play a pivotal role in cartilage destruction during rheumatoid arthritis, for which infiltrating cells produce high levels of superoxide and proinflammatory cytokines.