Guanine of the third strand of C.G*G triplex serves as an effective hole trap.J Am Chem Soc 2002; 124(49):14580-5JA
We have examined the structural and electronic effects of the one-electron oxidation of the C.GG triplex, where G is located in a quite different environment from the G of duplex DNA. Upon photoirradiation of an external photosensitizer (riboflavin) with the C.GG triplex, oxidative DNA cleavage occurred exclusively at guanine repeat sequences in the third strand of triple helix DNA. Hole transport through the C.GG triplex also occurred, resulting in selective cleavage at G in the third strand. Thus, the hole generated in the duplex can migrate to GGG in the third strand and is trapped exclusively at Gs in the third strand. These experimental results, together with molecular orbital calculations, suggest that the origin of the selective strand cleavage can be explained as follows: (i) guanine repeat sequences in the third strand are more easily oxidized than in duplex DNA and (ii) in their radical cation states, G of the third strand rapidly deprotonates and reacts with oxygen and/or water, leading to strand cleavage. These results indicate that the oxidative damage preferentially occurred at Gs of the third strand owing to thermodynamic and kinetic features of the one-electron oxidation of the C.GG triplex.