Endometriosis of the urinary tract.Urol Clin North Am 2002; 29(3):625-35UC
Genitourinary endometriosis is a rare manifestation of a common disease. Ectopic endometrial tissue may extrinsically involve or intrinsically invade the bladder or ureter, and, less commonly, the urethra or kidney. Bladder involvement usually presents with irritative symptoms, whereas ureteral disease may present with asymptomatic renal failure. Therefore, a high index of suspicion is necessary, and genitourinary endometriosis should be considered in all symptomatic women with a history of cesarean delivery of other gynecologic surgery. In women beyond reproductive age, definitive surgical treatment is preferred, with removal of the ectopic tissue, relief of obstruction, and castration with or without hysterectomy. In those who desire future fertility, conservative surgery and/or hormonal therapy is often recommended.