Promise of combined low-molecular-weight heparin and platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition: results from Platelet IIb/IIIa Antagonist for the Reduction of Acute coronary syndrome events in a Global Organization Network B (PARAGON B).Am Heart J. 2002 Dec; 144(6):995-1002.AH
Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) has a more predictable anticoagulant effect than unfractionated heparin (UFH), is easier to administer, and does not require monitoring. Minimal data are available on LMWH combined with platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors.
In the Platelet IIb/IIIa Antagonist for the Reduction of Acute Coronary Syndrome Events in a Global Organization Network B (PARAGON B) trial, patients with an acute coronary syndrome were randomized to receive the IIb/IIIa inhibitor lamifiban or a placebo. To rigorously explore the potential benefits of LWMH and GP IIb/IIIa inhibition, we analyzed the rates of ischemic complications and safety outcomes in PARAGON B.
Approximately one fifth of the patients received LMWH (805 vs 4395 UFH). For the overall cohort, the incidence of death/myocardial infarction (MI)/severe recurrent ischemia (SRI) was 12.2%, and this composite end point was numerically lowest in the lamifiban with LMWH group (10.2%). Similarly, the incidence of death/MI was 11.0% for the entire cohort and lowest in the lamifiban and LMWH group (9.0%). The lower event rate for patients taking LMWH in the lamifiban group was sustained at 6 months, with a lower revascularization rate (51.5% vs 42.8%) and a lower composite of death/MI (13.8% vs 11.9%). Bleeding was comparable in the 2 heparin groups (1.4% with UFH vs 0.9% with LMWH). The propensity adjusted odds ratio for 30-day revascularization was significantly lower with LMWH (odds ratio 0.67, 95% CI 0.57-0.79, P <.001). There were no significant differences in death/MI/SRI at 30 days (P =.465), death/MI at 30 days (P =.264), and stroke at 30 days with the type of heparin use (P =.201) after propensity risk adjustment.
In the PARAGON B trial, use of LMWH in conjunction with a GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor was safe and associated with a lower revascularization rate. These findings support the rationale and promise for combining GP IIb/IIIa blockers and LMWH for future management of acute coronary syndrome.