Micronised purified flavonoid fraction: a review of its use in chronic venous insufficiency, venous ulcers and haemorrhoids.Drugs. 2003; 63(1):71-100.D
Micronised purified flavonoid fraction (MPFF) [Daflon 500 mg], an oral phlebotropic drug consisting of 90% micronised diosmin and 10% flavonoids expressed as hesperidin, improves venous tone and lymphatic drainage, and reduces capillary hyperpermeability by protecting the microcirculation from inflammatory processes. The absorption of diosmin is improved by its micronisation to particles with a diameter <2 microm. Compared with placebo, MPFF 500 mg twice daily significantly decreased ankle or calf circumference, and improved many symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and plethysmographic parameters in two randomised, double-blind, 2-month studies. Improvement in symptoms was parallelled by an improvement in health-related quality of life in a nonblind, 6-month trial. Significantly more venous leg ulcers </=10 cm in diameter completely healed with MPFF 500 mg twice daily plus standard management (compression and local treatment) for 2-6 months than with standard management alone or with placebo in a nonblind and a double-blind trial. The addition of MPFF to standard management was cost effective in a retrospective pharmacoeconomic analysis of the 6-month trial. Compared with placebo, the duration and/or intensity of individual symptoms of grade 1 or 2 acute internal haemorrhoids improved significantly with 3 tablets of MPFF 500 mg twice daily for 4 days then 2 tablets of MPFF 500 mg twice daily for 3 days. Two tablets of MPFF 500 mg daily for 60 or 83 days reduced the frequency, duration and/or severity of acute haemorrhoidal symptoms and improved the overall signs and symptoms of chronic (recurrent) haemorrhoids compared with placebo. Compared with a control group, MPFF significantly reduced the risk of secondary bleeding after elective haemorrhoidectomy. In clinical trials, MPFF had a tolerability profile similar to that of placebo; the most frequently reported adverse events were gastrointestinal and autonomic in nature. In conclusion, MPFF is a well established and well tolerated treatment option in patients with CVI, venous ulcers, or acute or chronic internal haemorrhoids. MPFF is indicated as a first-line treatment of oedema and the symptoms of CVI in patients in any stage of the disease. In more advanced disease stages, MPFF may be used in conjunction with sclerotherapy, surgery and/or compression therapy, or as an alternative treatment when surgery is not indicated or is unfeasible. The healing of venous ulcers </=10 cm in diameter is accelerated by the addition of MPFF to standard venous ulcer management. MPFF may reduce the frequency, duration and/or intensity of symptoms of grade 1 or 2 acute internal haemorrhoids, and also the severity of the signs and symptoms of chronic haemorrhoids.