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Eating well: ageing gracefully!

Abstract

The potential impact of dietary manipulation on the maintenance of physical and cognitive function between middle and old age has profound consequences for optimization of health, independence and well-being for the latter years. This review article considers four key areas: the role of diet and longevity; potential dietary measures to prevent sarcopenia; diet and cognitive function; and dietary interventions with regard to primary or secondary prevention of age-related chronic disorders. Caloric restriction has been shown to slow ageing and maintain health status in both primates and rats. The evidence has limited applicability to humans, since it is unlikely that 30% reduced diets could be maintained long-term. The causes of sarcopenia, which manifests as loss of strength, disability and reduced quality of life, are multifactorial. However, resistance with ageing to regulatory amino acids known to modulate translation and initiation, particularly leucine, raise possibilities with regard to dietary intervention. The pattern of protein intake appears to be important in whole-body protein retention in older adults. A body of evidence is emerging that associates various dietary factors with a reduction in cognitive decline with age, or a delay in the progression of Alzheimer's disease, particularly with regard to intake of vitamin E and C-containing foods, as well as fish intake. Epidemiological evidence demonstrates a role for dietary intervention in the primary prevention of chronic diseases, even in old age. However, the potentially harmful effects of micronutrient supplementation in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease raise concern regarding appropriate dietary messages for the elderly. The role of the antioxidants, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, in the prevention of cataracts and age-related macular degeneration support the almost universal dietary guideline 'eat more fruit and vegetables'. In future dietary guidelines for the elderly need to be evidence-based and take into account protective food patterns, rather than target specific foods.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    Division of Nutrition and Dietetics, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa. kc@uctgsh1.uct.ac.za

    Source

    Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition 11 Suppl 3: 2002 pg S607-17

    MeSH

    Aged
    Aging
    Australia
    Chronic Disease
    Cognition
    Dietary Proteins
    Energy Intake
    Female
    Humans
    Male
    Muscular Atrophy
    Nutrition Disorders
    Nutrition Policy
    Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
    Primary Prevention
    Weight Loss

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    12492654

    Citation

    Charlton, Karen E.. "Eating Well: Ageing Gracefully!" Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 11 Suppl 3, 2002, pp. S607-17.
    Charlton KE. Eating well: ageing gracefully! Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2002;11 Suppl 3:S607-17.
    Charlton, K. E. (2002). Eating well: ageing gracefully! Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 11 Suppl 3, pp. S607-17.
    Charlton KE. Eating Well: Ageing Gracefully. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2002;11 Suppl 3:S607-17. PubMed PMID: 12492654.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Eating well: ageing gracefully! A1 - Charlton,Karen E, PY - 2002/12/21/pubmed PY - 2003/6/28/medline PY - 2002/12/21/entrez SP - S607 EP - 17 JF - Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition JO - Asia Pac J Clin Nutr VL - 11 Suppl 3 N2 - The potential impact of dietary manipulation on the maintenance of physical and cognitive function between middle and old age has profound consequences for optimization of health, independence and well-being for the latter years. This review article considers four key areas: the role of diet and longevity; potential dietary measures to prevent sarcopenia; diet and cognitive function; and dietary interventions with regard to primary or secondary prevention of age-related chronic disorders. Caloric restriction has been shown to slow ageing and maintain health status in both primates and rats. The evidence has limited applicability to humans, since it is unlikely that 30% reduced diets could be maintained long-term. The causes of sarcopenia, which manifests as loss of strength, disability and reduced quality of life, are multifactorial. However, resistance with ageing to regulatory amino acids known to modulate translation and initiation, particularly leucine, raise possibilities with regard to dietary intervention. The pattern of protein intake appears to be important in whole-body protein retention in older adults. A body of evidence is emerging that associates various dietary factors with a reduction in cognitive decline with age, or a delay in the progression of Alzheimer's disease, particularly with regard to intake of vitamin E and C-containing foods, as well as fish intake. Epidemiological evidence demonstrates a role for dietary intervention in the primary prevention of chronic diseases, even in old age. However, the potentially harmful effects of micronutrient supplementation in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease raise concern regarding appropriate dietary messages for the elderly. The role of the antioxidants, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, in the prevention of cataracts and age-related macular degeneration support the almost universal dietary guideline 'eat more fruit and vegetables'. In future dietary guidelines for the elderly need to be evidence-based and take into account protective food patterns, rather than target specific foods. SN - 0964-7058 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12492654/Eating_well:_ageing_gracefully L2 - http://apjcn.nhri.org.tw/server/APJCN/11 Suppl 3//S607.pdf DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -