Diet and prostate cancer.Toxicology 2002; 181-182:89-94T
The importance of dietary factors for prostate carcinogenesis has been proven by epidemiological studies of immigrants from Asia into the USA. Intake of foodstuffs rich in fat, including meat, is suggested to be a risk factor. Experimentally, while some studies demonstrated high fat intake to promote rat prostate carcinogenesis, others did not. Charcoal-cooked red meat and fish have been demonstrated to contain heterocyclic amines that are carcinogenic in rodents and non-primates. Among them, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) has been shown to induce cancers in the mammary glands, colon and prostate of rats. Although there are epidemiological data showing that PhIP could contribute to the development of breast cancer, equivalent evidence for prostate cancer is lacking. However, as protective dietary factors, micronutrients such as selenium, zinc, isoflavones, carotenoids and lycopenes and vitamins E and D have been listed. Animal experimentation on prostate cancer has consistently supported preventive potential for carotenoids and isoflavones, in contrast to the inconsistent results with high fat diets. Although the diet has apparently an important influence on prostate carcinogenesis in man, further research is necessary for clarification of specific factors in man.