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Plant-derived, synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids as neuroprotective agents. Non-psychoactive cannabinoids, 'entourage' compounds and inhibitors of N-acyl ethanolamine breakdown as therapeutic strategies to avoid pyschotropic effects.

Abstract

There is good evidence that plant-derived and synthetic cannabinoids possess neuroprotective properties. These compounds, as a result of effects upon CB(1) cannabinoid receptors, reduce the release of glutamate, and in addition reduce the influx of calcium following NMDA receptor activation. The major obstacle to the therapeutic utilization of such compounds are their psychotropic effects, which are also brought about by actions on CB(1) receptors. However, synthesis of the endogenous cannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, which also have neuroprotective properties, are increased under conditions of severe inflammation and ischemia, raising the possibility that compounds that prevent their metabolism may be of therapeutic utility without having the drawback of producing psychotropic effects. In this review, the evidence indicating neuroprotective actions of plant-derived, synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids is presented. In addition, the pharmacological properties of endogenous anandamide-related compounds that are not active upon cannabinoid receptors, but which are also produced during conditions of severe inflammation and ischemia and may contribute to a neuroprotective action are reviewed.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Umeå University, SE-901 87, Umeå, Sweden. cf@pharm.umu.se

    Source

    MeSH

    Animals
    Anti-Inflammatory Agents
    Brain
    Cannabinoids
    Ethanolamines
    Humans
    Neuroprotective Agents
    Plant Extracts
    Psychotropic Drugs
    Receptors, Cannabinoid
    Receptors, Drug
    Stroke

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    12505646

    Citation

    Fowler, Christopher J.. "Plant-derived, Synthetic and Endogenous Cannabinoids as Neuroprotective Agents. Non-psychoactive Cannabinoids, 'entourage' Compounds and Inhibitors of N-acyl Ethanolamine Breakdown as Therapeutic Strategies to Avoid Pyschotropic Effects." Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews, vol. 41, no. 1, 2003, pp. 26-43.
    Fowler CJ. Plant-derived, synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids as neuroprotective agents. Non-psychoactive cannabinoids, 'entourage' compounds and inhibitors of N-acyl ethanolamine breakdown as therapeutic strategies to avoid pyschotropic effects. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2003;41(1):26-43.
    Fowler, C. J. (2003). Plant-derived, synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids as neuroprotective agents. Non-psychoactive cannabinoids, 'entourage' compounds and inhibitors of N-acyl ethanolamine breakdown as therapeutic strategies to avoid pyschotropic effects. Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews, 41(1), pp. 26-43.
    Fowler CJ. Plant-derived, Synthetic and Endogenous Cannabinoids as Neuroprotective Agents. Non-psychoactive Cannabinoids, 'entourage' Compounds and Inhibitors of N-acyl Ethanolamine Breakdown as Therapeutic Strategies to Avoid Pyschotropic Effects. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2003;41(1):26-43. PubMed PMID: 12505646.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Plant-derived, synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids as neuroprotective agents. Non-psychoactive cannabinoids, 'entourage' compounds and inhibitors of N-acyl ethanolamine breakdown as therapeutic strategies to avoid pyschotropic effects. A1 - Fowler,Christopher J, PY - 2002/12/31/pubmed PY - 2003/3/22/medline PY - 2002/12/31/entrez SP - 26 EP - 43 JF - Brain research. Brain research reviews JO - Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. VL - 41 IS - 1 N2 - There is good evidence that plant-derived and synthetic cannabinoids possess neuroprotective properties. These compounds, as a result of effects upon CB(1) cannabinoid receptors, reduce the release of glutamate, and in addition reduce the influx of calcium following NMDA receptor activation. The major obstacle to the therapeutic utilization of such compounds are their psychotropic effects, which are also brought about by actions on CB(1) receptors. However, synthesis of the endogenous cannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, which also have neuroprotective properties, are increased under conditions of severe inflammation and ischemia, raising the possibility that compounds that prevent their metabolism may be of therapeutic utility without having the drawback of producing psychotropic effects. In this review, the evidence indicating neuroprotective actions of plant-derived, synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids is presented. In addition, the pharmacological properties of endogenous anandamide-related compounds that are not active upon cannabinoid receptors, but which are also produced during conditions of severe inflammation and ischemia and may contribute to a neuroprotective action are reviewed. UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12505646/Plant_derived_synthetic_and_endogenous_cannabinoids_as_neuroprotective_agents__Non_psychoactive_cannabinoids_'entourage'_compounds_and_inhibitors_of_N_acyl_ethanolamine_breakdown_as_therapeutic_strategies_to_avoid_pyschotropic_effects_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0165017302002187 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -